Confronting Antimicrobial Resistance: A Shared Goal of Family Physicians and the CDC
Am Fam Physician. 1999 Apr 15;59(8):2097-2100.
Because the clinical care and public health systems in the United States must be able to respond rapidly to emerging and reemerging infectious disease threats, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently published a plan, Preventing Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Strategy for the 21st Century,1 which was developed in consultation with many partners and with input from primary care clinicians. The plan addresses four major goals—surveillance and response, applied research, infrastructure and training, and prevention and control—and is designed to foster stronger and more flexible responses to emerging infectious diseases.
Antimicrobial resistance is a major target area in the plan. Approximately 11 percent of invasive pneumococcal isolates in a multiregion surveillance project of the CDC are no longer susceptible to penicillin or third-generation cephalosporins2; resistance to new fluoroquinolones has already been reported (C. Whitney, unpublished data from CDC, 1998). In intensive care units, 28 percent of the bacteria that most frequently cause hospital-acquired infections are resistant to the preferred antibiotic3 (S. Fridkin, unpublished data from CDC, 1998). Reports of community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are increasing,4 and strains of S. aureus with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin have been identified in Japan, Michigan, New Jersey, New York and Europe.5–7 Resistance has also emerged in pathogens that cause tuberculosis, gonorrhea, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, salmonellosis, candidiasis, malaria and other common infections.8
The CDC and family physicians share common goals that can be of mutual benefit in preventing antimicrobial resistance. As a public health agency, the CDC conducts surveillance of resistance to assist in clinical decision making, new drug development, and targeting of prevention and control measures. The CDC supports applied research to identify the molecular basis of antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for its development and spread, to develop better and rapid diagnostic tests, and to assess the roles of new drugs and vaccines. Infrastructure and training goals include ensuring that clinical laboratories can detect and report resistant pathogens to clinicians and that public health agencies can respond appropriately.
The ultimate goal we share is the prevention and control of antimicrobial resistance. Although specific measures differ for different pathogens, a common theme is that antimicrobial drug use exerts selective pressure favoring resistance. Judicious prescribing of antimicrobials is therefore essential to maximize the life of existing drugs while new drugs are being developed. Infection control is also important in settings that may amplify infection transmission (e.g., health care and child care settings). Simple strategies such as washing one's hands between patients must be reinforced continuously.
Family physicians are on the front lines in the battle against antimicrobial resistance. In caring for patients with a wide range of ages and presenting conditions, they represent the first link in the chain of surveillance and play a critical role in developing and implementing realistic prevention and control recommendations, and educating patients. Public health agencies can assist clinicians by providing surveillance summaries, updated treatment information and educational materials, and by facilitating the development and evaluation of new drugs, vaccines and diagnostic tests.
In respiratory illness seasons, the most important contribution that physicians can make is to limit the prescribing of antimicrobial drugs. The CDC estimates that 50 million unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics for upper respiratory infections are written annually in the United States, representing enormous selective pressure for resistant bacteria. Unnecessary antibiotic use increases an individual patient's risk of acquiring a drug-resistant infection, not just the community's risk.9
Patients often require an explanation that antimicrobials offer no benefit for their viral illness and may even be harmful. With input from family practitioners and other experts, the CDC has developed clinical aids to save physicians' time in the examining room, including “prescription pads” outlining treatment for viral illnesses and colorful, attractive, easy-to-read educational brochures for the waiting room. One such brochure in Spanish and English is free to family physicians and is available by faxing a request on letterhead to CDC's Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases (404-639-0817), or by accessing the CDC Web site (http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/antimic-d.htm).
Physicians should also be familiar with the latest diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations (see table). For example, it is now known that purulent rhinitis is part of the natural history of a viral cold. An illness characterized by bronchitis or a cough that lasts fewer than 10 days is usually viral in origin. High-dose amoxicillin (80 to 90 mg per kg per day) is the drug of choice for acute otitis media.10 Antimicrobial therapy for acute otitis media in most patients over two years of age can be stopped after five to seven days, even if asymptomatic effusions have not yet resolved.11–13 Educational materials for patients and clinicians can be obtained through the health information page on the CDC Web site (http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/antimic-d.htm).
Actions to Protect Patients from Antimicrobial Resistant Infections
Actions to Protect Patients from Antimicrobial Resistant Infections
Prescribe no antibiotics for simple coughs and colds. (Remember that purulent rhinitis is part of the natural history of a viral cold; acute bronchitis/cough illnesses lasting less than 10 days are usually viral.)
Prescribe no antibiotics for viral sore throats; prescribe a penicillin for laboratory-diagnosed group A streptococcal pharyngitis.
Limit antibiotic prescribing for uncomplicated cystitis to three days in otherwise healthy women.
Limit prescribing of antibiotics over the telephone to exceptional cases.
Prescribe amoxicillin as the drug of choice for acute otitis media, but no antibiotics for initial treatment of otitis media with effusion. (In most patients over two years of age, five to seven days of treatment for acute otitis media is enough, even if asymptomatic effusions have not yet resolved.)
Obtain current information and order education materials for patients through the antibiotic resistance page on the Web site of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/antimic-d.htm).
Information from United Kingdom Department of Health Standing Medical Advisory Committee, Sub-Group on Antimicrobial Resistance. The path of least resistance: summary and recommendations. London: Department of Health, 1998; Dowell SF, Marcy SM, Phillips WR, Gerber MA, Schwartz B. Otitis media—principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents. Pediatrics 1998;101(2 pt 2):165–71; Rosenstein N, Phillips WR, Gerber MA, Marcy SM, Schwartz B, Dowell SF. The common cold—principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents. Pediatrics 1998;101(2 pt 2):181–4.
Recent increases in antimicrobial resistance are cause for alarm but not pessimism. Improving prescribing practices and decreasing the spread of antimicrobial resistance can be accomplished.14,15 By forming effective partnerships involving clinicians, public health officials and patients, we can prolong the effectiveness of currently available drugs and reduce the threat of antimicrobial resistance for patients today and for patients of future generations.
1. Rose VL. CDC releases updated plan for emerging infectious diseases (Special Medical Report). Am Fam Physician. 1999;59:2361–6.
2. Cetron MS, Breiman RF, Jorgenson JH, et al. Multisite population-based surveillance for drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (DRSP). Abstract C-283. Abstracts of the 97th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, May 4–8, 1997. Washington DC: American Society for Microbiology:169.
3. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) Report, data summary from October 1986–1996, issued May 1996. A report from the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System. Am J Infect Control. 1996;24:380–8.
4. Herold BC, Immergluck LC, Maranan MC, Lauderdale DS, Gaskin RE, Boyle-Vavra S, et al. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children with no identified predisposing risk. JAMA. 1998;279:593–8.
5. Hiramatsu K, Hanaki H, Ino T, Yabuta K, Oguri T, Tenover FC. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical strains with reduced vancomycin susceptibility. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1997;40:135–6.
6. Update: Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin—United States, 1997; MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1997;46:813–5 (published erratum appears in MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1997;46:851).
7. Ploy MC, Grelaud C, Martin C, de Lumley L, Denis F. First clinical isolate of vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus in a French hospital. Lancet. 1998;351:1212.
8. Institute of Medicine Antimicrobial resistance: issues and options. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 1998: 1–115.
9. Dowell SF, Schwartz B. Resistant pneumococci: protecting patients through judicious use of antibiotics. Am Fam Physician. 1997;55:1647–54.
10. Dowell SF, Butler JC, Giebink GS, Jacobs MR, Jernigen D, Musher DM, et al. Acute otitis media: management and surveillance in an era of pneumococcal resistance—a report from the Drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Therapeutic Working group. Ped Infect Dis J. 1999;18:1–9.
11. Dowell SF, Schwartz B, Phillips WR, Pediatric URI Consensus Team. Appropriate use of antibiotics for URIs in children: Part I. Otitis media and acute sinusitis. Am Fam Physician. 1998;58:1113–81123.
12. Dowell SF, Schwartz B, Phillips WR. Appropriate use of antimicrobial agents for URIs in children: Part II. Cough, pharyngitis, and the common cold. Am Fam Physician. 1998;58:1335–421345.
13. Gonzales R, Sande M. What will it take to stop physicians from prescribing antibiotics in acute bronchitis? Lancet. 1995;345:665–6.
14. Stephenson J. Icelandic researchers are showing the way to bring down rates of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. JAMA. 1996;275:175.
15. Pestotnik SL, Classen DC, Evans RS, Burke JP. Implementing antibiotic practice guidelines through computer-assisted decision support: clinical and financial outcomes. Ann Intern Med. 1996;124:884–90.
Copyright © 1999 by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP. Contact firstname.lastname@example.org for copyright questions and/or permission requests.
Want to use this article elsewhere? Get Permissions