Am Fam Physician. 2005 Jan 1;71(1):188-193.
The 2005 Recommended Childhood and Adolescent Immunization Schedule (see accompanying charts), which is approved by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), is similar to the July to December 2004 schedule. One item change should be noted: influenza vaccine is now recommended for routine use in children six through 23 months of age. This is indicated by the yellow bar for influenza located above the red dotted line for children six to 23 months of age; it also is recommended for children two years of age and older who have risk conditions such as asthma.
Hospitalization rates from influenza are highest among preschoolers, especially infants zero to one year of age. Among children aged zero to two years, the influenza-related hospitalization rates range (depending on the exact age) from about 800 to 1,900 per 100,000 for children who have high-risk conditions compared with 186 to 1,038 per 100,000 for healthy children.1-3 One study4 found rates of 144 to 187 per 100,000 children aged zero to 23 months.2,4 Furthermore, one team showed that healthy children aged six months to three years had rates of influenza-associated hospitalization as high or higher than rates among children aged three to 14 years who had high-risk conditions.1,3 One study3 found that for every 100 children, an annual average of six to 15 outpatient visits and three to nine courses of antibiotics were attributable to influenza. Recently, neurologic complications of influenza in children have been more widely recognized, including encephalopathy and death.
Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) has moderate efficacy in young children and good efficacy in older children. A study8 of children aged one through 15 years found TIV to be 77 to 91 percent efficacious against influenza type A respiratory illness with efficacy defined by seroconversion of 44 to 49 percent among children one to five years of age, 74 to 76 percent among children six to 10 years of age, and 70 to 81 percent among children 11 to 15 years of age. Another study9 found an efficacy rate of 56 percent against influenza illness among children aged three to nine years. In the first year of a third study,10 efficacy was 66 percent against culture-confirmed influenza among children six to 24 months of age.
Because TIV is not live, it cannot cause influenza. Influenza vaccine can cause local reactions such as soreness at the injection site. In young children who have not been exposed to influenza vaccine, fever, malaise, and myalgia can occur. In one trial, fever occurred in 11.5 percent of children one to five years of age and in 5 percent of children aged six to 15 years.8 One study11 from the Vaccine Safety Datalink found that no serious reactions were associated with influenza vaccination among 251,600 children younger than 18 years of age who received over 438,000 doses of inactivated influenza vaccine. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Vaccine Information Statement on Influenza has been updated and is available on the CDC Web site at http://www.cdc.gov/nip/publications/VIS/default.htm.
Useful Web sites for current immunization information include the following: the CDC National Immunization Program Web site (http://www.cdc.gov/nip); the AAFP Web site (http://www.aafp.org), which contains AAFP clinical policies on immunization; the Group on Immunization Education of the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine’s Web site (http://www.immunizationed.org), which is a site developed by family physician educators and has free Palm OS and Windows applications of the childhood schedule; the Immunization Action Coalition Web site (http://www.immunize.org); and the National Network for Immunization Information Web site (http://www.immunizationinfo.org).
RICHARD K. ZIMMERMAN, M.D., M.P.H., is associate professor in the Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology at the University of Pittsburgh (Pa.) School of Medicine. Dr. Zimmerman was chair of the Influenza Working Group of the ACIP during the development of the Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule, United States, 2005.
1. Neuzil KM, Wright PF, Mitchel EF Jr, Griffin MR. The burden of influenza illness in children with asthma and other chronic medical conditions. J Pediatr. 2000;137:856-64.
2. Harper SA, Fukuda K, Uyeki TM, Cox NJ, Bridges; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Prevention and control of influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) [Published correction in MMWR Recomm Rep 2004;53:743]. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2004;53(RR-6):1-40.
3. Neuzil KM, Mellen BG, Wright PF, Mitchel EF Jr, Griffin MR. The effect of influenza on hospitalizations, outpatient visits, and courses of antibiotics in children. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:225-31.
4. Izurieta HS, Thompson WW, Kramarz P, Shay DK, Davis RL, DeStefano F, et al. Influenza and the rates of hospitalization for respiratory disease among infants and young children. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:232-9.
5. Sullivan KM, Monto AS, Longini IM Jr. Estimates of the U.S. health impact of influenza. Am J Public Health. 1993;83:1712-6.
6. Glezen WP. Considerations of the risk of influenza in children and indications for prophylaxis. Rev Infect Dis. 1980;2:408-20.
7. Glezen WP, Taber LH, Frank AL, Gruber WC, Piedra PA. Influenza virus infections in infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1997;16:1065-8.
8. Neuzil KM, Dupont WD, Wright PF, Edwards KM. Efficacy of inactivated and cold-adapted vaccines against influenza A infection, 1985 to 1990: the pediatric experience. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001;20:733-40.
9. Clover RD, Crawford S, Glezen WP, Taber LH, Matson CC, Couch RB. Comparison of heterotypic protection against influenza A/Taiwan/86 (H1N1) by attenuated and inactivated vaccines to A/Chile/83-like viruses. J Infect Dis. 1991;163:300-4.
10. Hoberman A, Greenberg DP, Paradise JL, Rockette HE, Lave JR, Kearney DH, et al. Effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccine in preventing acute otitis media in young children: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003;290:1608-16.
11. France EK, Glanz JM, Xu S, Davis RL, Black SB, Shinefield HR, et al. Safety of the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine among children: a population-based study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158:1031-6.
Copyright © 2005 by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP. Contact firstname.lastname@example.org for copyright questions and/or permission requests.
Want to use this article elsewhere? Get Permissions