Am Fam Physician. 2005 Aug 1;72(3):382-384.
to the editor: Dr. Solenski’s review1 of treatment options for transient ischemic attack (TIA) discusses the additive benefits of combination therapy with aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole (Persantine), compared with placebo or aspirin alone, as noted in the European Stroke Prevention Study 2 (ESPS-2).2 However, Dr. Solenski raises a concern that the “expected similar benefits for reducing myocardial infarction and vascular death were not observed.”1 This concern is misplaced because a trial limited to stroke patients would not be expected to show such benefits.
ESPS-2 only enrolled patients with recent ischemic stroke or TIA2. Such patients are overwhelmingly more likely to have a recurrent stroke than a myocardial infarction during the two-year follow-up period of the trial.3 Although a nonsignificant trend toward reduction of myocardial infarction in favor of aspirin and combination therapy was seen in ESPS-2,2 there were simply too few myocardial infarction endpoints to draw any firm conclusion. This paucity of myocardial infarction endpoints in stroke patients has occurred in other antiplatelet trials. In the Clopidogrel versus Aspirin in Patients at Risk of Ischemic Events (CAPRIE) trial,4 patients enrolled after a stroke were seven times more likely to have a stroke than a myocardial infarction during the follow-up period. More strikingly, the recent Management of Atherothrombosis with Clopidogrel in High-risk Patients (MATCH) with Recent Transient Ischemic Attack or Ischemic Stroke trial enrolled patients with recent stroke and TIA, 73 percent of whom would be presumed to have a high risk of cardiac events caused by diabetes or previous myocardial infarction. Even in this population, ischemic stroke was five times more likely as an endpoint than myocardial infarction.5
Patients with a recent stroke or TIA are at exceedingly high risk for a recurrent ischemic stroke. Preventing myocardial infarction in these patients is important, but recurrent stroke prevention is paramount, at least for the first two years. In this context, the concern about combined aspirin/extended-release dipyridamole raised by Dr. Solenski should not prevent the use of this therapy in patients with recent stroke or TIA.
Author disclosure: Dr. Bernstein has received honoraria from Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals and Bristol-Myers Squibb Company.
REFERENCESshow all references
1. Solenski NJ. Transient ischemic attacks: part II. Treatment. Am Fam Physician. 2004;69:1681-8....
2. Diener HC, Cunha L, Forbes C, Sivenius J, Smets P, Lowenthal A. European Stroke Prevention Study. 2. Dipyridamole and acetylsalicylic acid in the secondary prevention of stroke. J Neurol Sci. 1996;143:1-13.
3. Albers GW. Choice of endpoints in antiplatelet trials: which outcomes are most relevant to stroke patients? Neurology. 2000;54:1022-8.
4. A randomised, blinded trial of clopidogrel versus aspirin in patients at risk of ischaemic events (CAPRIE). Lancet. 1996;348:1329-39.
5. Diener HC, for the MATCH investigators. Management of atherothrombosis with clopidogrel in high-risk patients with recent transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke. Paper presented at: 13th European Stroke Conference; May 13, 2004; Mannheim, Germany.
in reply: I appreciate the opportunity to address Dr. Bernstein’s letter and thank him for his interest in our article.1 The European Stroke Prevention Study 2 (ESPS-2) consisted of a large cohort of 6,602 patients randomized into four treatment groups with more than 1,600 patients enrolled in each limb. Primary endpoints were stroke, death, and stroke and death together. Transient ischemic attack (TIA) and other vascular events were secondary endpoints. More than 33 percent of the patients in each limb had known ischemic heart disease, and an additional 8 percent in each limb had known cardiac failure at the time of enrollment. This calculates to more than 500 patients with known ischemic heart disease enrolled in each limb of the study. An unknown number of patients likely had undiagnosed ischemic heart disease, potentially raising the true number of patients with cardiac ischemia. Patients were followed on treatment with the study drug for two years. A total of 167 patients experienced myocardial infarction during this time with no statistically significant difference between the study limbs, particularly between patients receiving aspirin and those receiving placebo. There are strong data showing that even low-dose aspirin given over short periods of time is cardioprotective.2 For example, in a cohort of patients with silent ischemia, there is significant benefit from taking low-dose aspirin (75 mg per day) as seen in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.3 The group randomized to aspirin had significantly less myocardial infarctions or death at three months compared with the placebo group (4 versus 21 percent, respectively) and also at 12 months (9 versus 28 percent, respectively). Therefore, the effect of acetylsalicylic acid on preventing myocardial infarction in this relatively large cohort of patients would be expected. However, I agree that myocardial infarction was a secondary outcome point and that the trial was not designed to evaluate this. Secondary outcome points still should be analyzed critically because they may provide important data in understanding the representative nature of the patient population being tested. I strongly agree with Dr. Bernstein that outcomes for the evaluation of stroke therapies are most accurately determined if stroke alone is chosen as the primary endpoint, as was eloquently argued by Dr. Albers.4 As pointed out in Dr. Albers’ article, long-term follow-up studies have found that after a stroke or TIA, patients have a greater risk of dying of a cardiac event than of a stroke.5,6 This suggests that data on myocardial infarction in the context of the medication being tested for secondary stroke prophylaxis should continue to be critically analyzed as a secondary outcome point
REFERENCESshow all references
1. Solenski NJ. Transient ischemic attacks: part I. Diagnosis and evaluation. Am Fam Physician. 2004;69:1665-74....
2. Collaborative meta-analysis of randomized trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients. BMJ. 2002;324:71-86.
3. Nyman I, Larsson H, Wallentin L. Prevention of serious cardiac events by low-dose aspirin in patients with silent myocardial ischeamia. The Research Group on Instability in Coronary Artery Disease in Southeast Sweden. Lancet. 1992;340:497-501.
4. Albers GW. Choice of endpoints in antiplatelet trials: which outcomes are most relevant to stroke patients? Neurology. 2000;54:1022-8.
5. Cartlidge NE, Whisnant JP, Elveback LR. Carotid and vertebral–basilar transient cerebral ischemic attacks. A community study, Rochester, Minnesota. Mayo Clin Proc. 1977;52:117-20.
6. Prencipe M, Culasso F, Rasura M, Anzini A, Beccia M, Cao M, et al. Long-term prognosis after a minor stroke: 10-year mortality and major stroke recurrence rates in a hospital-based cohort. Stroke. 1998;29:126-32.
Send letters to Kenneth W. Lin, MD, MPH, Associate Deputy Editor for AFP Online, e-mail: email@example.com, or 11400 Tomahawk Creek Pkwy., Leawood, KS 66211-2680.
Please include your complete address, e-mail address, and telephone number. Letters should be fewer than 400 words and limited to six references, one table or figure, and three authors.
Letters submitted for publication in AFP must not be submitted to any other publication. Possible conflicts of interest must be disclosed at time of submission. Submission of a letter will be construed as granting the American Academy of Family Physicians permission to publish the letter in any of its publications in any form. The editors may edit letters to meet style and space requirements.
Copyright © 2005 by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP. Contact firstname.lastname@example.org for copyright questions and/or permission requests.
Want to use this article elsewhere? Get Permissions