Letters to the Editor
Potential Side Effects of SSRI Use Include Risk of Hyponatremia
Am Fam Physician. 2009 Feb 1;79(3):online.
to the editor: The article on pharmacologic management of adult depression is a useful review of commonly prescribed medications. However, a discussion of the safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) must include hyponatremia, a well-recognized and potentially life-threatening side effect of this class of medications. A recent literature review showed an incidence of hyponatremia ranging from 0.5 to –32 percent among those receiving SSRIs.1 Risk factors for the development of hyponatremia include older age, female sex, concomitant use of diuretics, low body weight, and lower baseline serum sodium concentration.1,2 Most cases resolve with discontinuation of the SSRI. Physicians should be aware of this potential complication, particularly in older patients.
Antidepressants are often used to man-age depression in women who are pregnant and lactating without adverse effects; however, physicians should discuss the risks these medications may pose to the developing fetus or breastfed infant with the patient before initiating treatment. When used in late pregnancy, an association has been shown between SSRIs and neonatal withdrawal syndrome and persistent pulmonary hypertension.3,4 The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends avoidance of paroxetine (Paxil) in particular, because of an increased risk of congenital malformations.5
1. Jacob S, Spinler SA. Hyponatremia associated with selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors in older adults. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40(9):1618–622.
2. Movig KL, Leufkens HG, Lenderink AW, et al. Association between antidepressant drug use and hyponatraemia: a case-control study. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2002;53(4):363–69.
3. Way CM. Safety of newer antidepressants in pregnancy. Pharmacotherapy. 2007;27(4):546–52.
4. Chambers CD, Hernandez-Diaz S, Van Marter LJ, et al. Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(6):579–87.
5. ACOG Committee on Obstetric Practice. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 354: Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;108(6):1601–603.
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