Editorials

Drug Information Services: The Answer to Your Drug-Related Questions

Am Fam Physician. 2009 Oct 1;80(7):670-672.

Although drug information is readily available in books and drug databases accessed via the Internet or personal digital assistants, there are still some situations in which verbal communication with a knowledgeable source is often the quickest strategy for answering clinical questions about medications. A noncommercial, pharmacist-operated drug information service can be a useful information alternative that offers a personalized approach.

The primary goal of a drug information service is to improve patient care by providing objective and unbiased information for drug-related questions. Drug information services are facilities or personnel dedicated to and specializing in the provision of written or oral information about drugs and pharmacotherapy, in response to a request from other health care professionals, organizations, committees, or patients. A drug information expert can estimate how much time may be necessary to perform the research, consider the urgency of the requestor, and prioritize requests. There is no special accreditation or licensing for drug information services; it is the pharmacist who is licensed.

Drug information is often cited as the first clinical pharmacy function to have developed in U.S. hospitals, and the specialized skill set needed for drug information practice is taught in nationally accredited postdoctoral pharmacy residencies across the country. Drug information specialists have the literature evaluation skills necessary for providing evidence-based recommendations, and they are experts at utilizing various sources of information. Drug information services are financially supported by a university, the state, or a hospital.

The benefits of drug information services have been demonstrated in a sample of more than 1,000 hospitals.1 The presence of a drug information service was associated with statistically significant decreases in medication costs, total costs of care, medication errors, and patient mortality rates. One study that retrospectively examined medical records compared two similar cases of patients who were taking neuroleptic drugs and had amenorrhea and elevated prolactin levels.2 A psychiatrist ordered a computed tomography scan for one patient, but consulted a drug information service before it was performed. The service recognized the elevated prolactin levels as a documented adverse drug reaction to the neuroleptic medication, and the scan was cancelled, saving $2,573 in direct costs. In the second patient, for whom the service was not consulted, unnecessary costs for diagnostic investigations and drug treatment totalled $42,892.2 In the hospital setting, drug information services are associated with reduced costs of $1,962 per occupied bed per year, or $430,580 to $1.7 million per hospital per year.3,4

Perhaps the best way to demonstrate the usefulness of drug information services is through examples of questions that have been posed:

  • Which medications can be used to treat pain in an injured patient who is on maintenance naltrexone therapy for alcohol abuse?

  • Are there any alternative formulations or dosing methods for a patient who has trouble swallowing tamsulosin capsules?

  • How long of a washout period is needed between stopping St. John's wort and starting a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor?

  • What is Zerinol, a drug my patient received in Italy, and what is the closest U.S. equivalent?

  • What dose of acetylcysteine is recommended to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy?

Table 1 lists locations and contact information for U.S. drug information services that accept questions from health care professionals, regardless of their institutional affiliation. Some services limit their assistance to health care professionals within their state, and some services accept questions internationally. There are a number of Poison Control Centers that also serve as a drug information service for nonemergent questions.

Table 1

Directory of U.S. Drug Information Services

Alabama

University of Alabama Hospital Department of Pharmacy

(205) 934-2162

Huntsville Hospital Drug Information Center

(256) 265-8284

California

Los Angeles County and University of Southern California Medical Center Drug Information Center

(323) 226-7741

Stanford Hospital and Clinics Drug Information Service*

(650) 723-6422

Colorado

Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center

(303) 739-1123

Connecticut

Yale-New Haven Hospital Drug Information Center

(203) 688-2248

District of Columbia

Howard University Hospital Drug Information Service

(202) 865-7413

Florida

Shands Hospital at the University of Florida Drug Information and Pharmacy Resource Center

(352) 265-0408

Nova Southeastern University College of Pharmacy Drug Information Center

(954) 262-3103

Georgia

Emory University Hospital Department of Pharmaceutical Services-Drug Information

(404) 712-4644

Northside Hospital Drug Information Service†

(404) 851-8676

Idaho

Idaho State University College of Pharmacy Drug Information Center

(208) 282-4689

Illinois

Northwestern Memorial Hospital Drug Information Center†

(312) 926-7573

Indiana

Clarian Health Partners Drug Information Service

(317) 962-1750

Kansas

University of Kansas Medical Center Drug Information Center

(913) 588-2328

druginfo@kumc.edu

Louisiana

Xavier University Drug Information Center at Tulane University Hospital and Clinic

(504) 588-5670

Maryland

Andrews Air Force Base Drug Information Service

(240) 857-4565

Michigan

University of Michigan Health System Department of Pharmacy Services

(734) 936-8200

Sparrow Hospital Drug Information Service

(517) 364-2444

William Beaumont Hospital Drug Information Service

(248) 898-4077

Providence Hospital Drug Information Service

(248) 849-3125

Missouri

University of Missouri–Kansas City Drug Information Center

(816) 235-5490

St. John's Hospital Drug Information Center

(417) 820-3488

St. Joseph Regional Medical Center Pharmacy

(816) 271-6141

Montana

University of Montana School of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences Drug Information Service

(406) 243-5254

Nebraska

Creighton University School of Pharmacy

(402) 280-5101

New Jersey

New Jersey Poison Information and Education System†

(973) 972-9280

Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital Drug Information Service

(732) 937-8842

New York

Long Island University Arnold & Marie Schwartz College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences International Drug Information Center*

(718) 488-1064

North Carolina

Campbell University School of Pharmacy

(910) 893-1200 ext. 2701

University of North Carolina Hospitals Department of Pharmacy

(919) 966-2373

Duke University Health Systems Drug Information Center

(919) 684-5125

Pitt County Memorial Hospital Eastern Carolina Drug Information Center

(252) 847-4257

Wake-Forest University Baptist Medical Center Drug Information Service Center

(336) 716-2037

Ohio

Ohio Northern University Raabe College of Pharmacy

(419) 772-2307

Children's Hospital Medical Center Drug and Poison Information Center

(513) 636-5111

Oklahoma

University of Oklahoma Medical Center Drug Information Center

(405) 271-6226

Pennsylvania

University of Pennsylvania Health System Drug Information Service

(215) 662-2903

Duquesne University Mylan School of Pharmacy

(412) 396-4600

Puerto Rico

Escuela de Farmacia-RCM Centro de Informacion de Medicamentos-CIM

(787) 758-2525 ext. 1516

South Carolina

Medical University of South Carolina Drug Information Service†

(843) 792-3896

Tennessee

VA Medical Center South East Regional Drug Information Center

(901) 523-8990 ext. 6720

University of Tennessee Drug Information Center

(901) 448-5556

Texas

Texas Tech Health Sciences Center School of Pharmacy

(806) 356-4008

Lackland Air Force Base Wilford Hall Medical Center Department of Pharmacy

(210) 292-5414

Scott and White Memorial Hospital Drug Information Center

(254) 724-4636

Virginia

Hampton University School of Pharmacy

(757) 728-6693

West Virginia

West Virginia University Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center West Virginia Center for Drug and Health Information

(304) 293-6640

Wyoming

University of Wyoming Drug Information Center†

(307) 766-6988


*— Accepts international requests.

†— In-state requests only.

Information from Physicians' Desk Reference. 61st ed. Montvale, N.J.: Thomson PDR;2007:3537–3541, and Red Book. Montvale, N.J.:Thomson Healthcare;2008:23–28.

Table 1   Directory of U.S. Drug Information Services

View Table

Table 1

Directory of U.S. Drug Information Services

Alabama

University of Alabama Hospital Department of Pharmacy

(205) 934-2162

Huntsville Hospital Drug Information Center

(256) 265-8284

California

Los Angeles County and University of Southern California Medical Center Drug Information Center

(323) 226-7741

Stanford Hospital and Clinics Drug Information Service*

(650) 723-6422

Colorado

Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center

(303) 739-1123

Connecticut

Yale-New Haven Hospital Drug Information Center

(203) 688-2248

District of Columbia

Howard University Hospital Drug Information Service

(202) 865-7413

Florida

Shands Hospital at the University of Florida Drug Information and Pharmacy Resource Center

(352) 265-0408

Nova Southeastern University College of Pharmacy Drug Information Center

(954) 262-3103

Georgia

Emory University Hospital Department of Pharmaceutical Services-Drug Information

(404) 712-4644

Northside Hospital Drug Information Service†

(404) 851-8676

Idaho

Idaho State University College of Pharmacy Drug Information Center

(208) 282-4689

Illinois

Northwestern Memorial Hospital Drug Information Center†

(312) 926-7573

Indiana

Clarian Health Partners Drug Information Service

(317) 962-1750

Kansas

University of Kansas Medical Center Drug Information Center

(913) 588-2328

druginfo@kumc.edu

Louisiana

Xavier University Drug Information Center at Tulane University Hospital and Clinic

(504) 588-5670

Maryland

Andrews Air Force Base Drug Information Service

(240) 857-4565

Michigan

University of Michigan Health System Department of Pharmacy Services

(734) 936-8200

Sparrow Hospital Drug Information Service

(517) 364-2444

William Beaumont Hospital Drug Information Service

(248) 898-4077

Providence Hospital Drug Information Service

(248) 849-3125

Missouri

University of Missouri–Kansas City Drug Information Center

(816) 235-5490

St. John's Hospital Drug Information Center

(417) 820-3488

St. Joseph Regional Medical Center Pharmacy

(816) 271-6141

Montana

University of Montana School of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences Drug Information Service

(406) 243-5254

Nebraska

Creighton University School of Pharmacy

(402) 280-5101

New Jersey

New Jersey Poison Information and Education System†

(973) 972-9280

Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital Drug Information Service

(732) 937-8842

New York

Long Island University Arnold & Marie Schwartz College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences International Drug Information Center*

(718) 488-1064

North Carolina

Campbell University School of Pharmacy

(910) 893-1200 ext. 2701

University of North Carolina Hospitals Department of Pharmacy

(919) 966-2373

Duke University Health Systems Drug Information Center

(919) 684-5125

Pitt County Memorial Hospital Eastern Carolina Drug Information Center

(252) 847-4257

Wake-Forest University Baptist Medical Center Drug Information Service Center

(336) 716-2037

Ohio

Ohio Northern University Raabe College of Pharmacy

(419) 772-2307

Children's Hospital Medical Center Drug and Poison Information Center

(513) 636-5111

Oklahoma

University of Oklahoma Medical Center Drug Information Center

(405) 271-6226

Pennsylvania

University of Pennsylvania Health System Drug Information Service

(215) 662-2903

Duquesne University Mylan School of Pharmacy

(412) 396-4600

Puerto Rico

Escuela de Farmacia-RCM Centro de Informacion de Medicamentos-CIM

(787) 758-2525 ext. 1516

South Carolina

Medical University of South Carolina Drug Information Service†

(843) 792-3896

Tennessee

VA Medical Center South East Regional Drug Information Center

(901) 523-8990 ext. 6720

University of Tennessee Drug Information Center

(901) 448-5556

Texas

Texas Tech Health Sciences Center School of Pharmacy

(806) 356-4008

Lackland Air Force Base Wilford Hall Medical Center Department of Pharmacy

(210) 292-5414

Scott and White Memorial Hospital Drug Information Center

(254) 724-4636

Virginia

Hampton University School of Pharmacy

(757) 728-6693

West Virginia

West Virginia University Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center West Virginia Center for Drug and Health Information

(304) 293-6640

Wyoming

University of Wyoming Drug Information Center†

(307) 766-6988


*— Accepts international requests.

†— In-state requests only.

Information from Physicians' Desk Reference. 61st ed. Montvale, N.J.: Thomson PDR;2007:3537–3541, and Red Book. Montvale, N.J.:Thomson Healthcare;2008:23–28.

Address correspondence to Anna M. Wojas, PharmD, MS, at anna.wojas@fda.hhs.gov. Reprints are not available from the authors.

Author disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

REFERENCES

1. Bond CA, Raehl CL. 2006 National clinical pharmacy services survey: clinical pharmacy services, collaborative drug management, medication errors, and pharmacy technology. Pharmacotherapy. 2008;28(1):1–13.

2. Lyrvall H, Nordin C, Jonsson E, Alvan G, Ohman B. Potential savings of consulting a drug information center. Ann Pharmacother. 1993;27(12):1540.

3. Bond CA, Raehl CL, Franke T. Clinical pharmacy services, pharmacist staffing, and drug costs in United States hospitals. Pharmacotherapy. 1999;19(12):1354–1362.

4. Kinky DE, Erush SC, Laskin MS, Gibson GA. Economic impact of a drug information service. Ann Phamacother. 1999;33(1):11–16.


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