Please note: This information was current at the time of publication. But medical information is always changing, and some information given here may be out of date. For regularly updated information on a variety of health topics, please visit, the AAFP patient education website.

Information from Your Family Doctor

What You Should Know About Scrotal Masses


FREE PREVIEW. AAFP members and paid subscribers: Log in to get free access. All others: Purchase online access.

FREE PREVIEW. Purchase online access to read the full version of this article.

Am Fam Physician. 2014 May 1;89(9):online.

What is the scrotum?

The scrotum is the sac that holds the testicles. Normally, the testicles are smooth, and the cord holding them feels like a rope. This cord is called the spermatic cord. Any swelling or lump in or on the scrotum is called a scrotal mass (see drawing).

Who gets a scrotal mass and why?

A testicle is more likely to become twisted or turned in children and young adults. This happens suddenly and is very painful. If you have a twisted testicle, you might feel sick or need to throw up.

Some men get an infection in the epididymis (the tube that carries sperm from the testicle to the penis). This infection is called epididymitis.

Cancer can also cause a lump in the scrotum. People with a history of a testicle that hasn't dropped or a family history of testicular cancer, Klinefelter syndrome, or testicular infection have a higher chance of getting testicular cancer.

When do I need to see my doctor?

You should see your doctor if you have a scrotal mass. If you have a painful, swollen scrotum, you should go to the emergency room.

What can I expect?

Your doctor will ask you some questions about your symptoms and examine your scrotum. He or she may also order blood tests, urine tests, or an ultrasound.

Most causes of scrotal mass can be treated. Even testicular cancer is often treatable.

This handout is provided to you by your family doctor and the American Academy of Family Physicians. Other health-related information is available from the AAFP online at

This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.


Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP. Contact for copyright questions and/or permission requests.

Want to use this article elsewhere? Get Permissions

CME Quiz


Oct 15, 2016

Access the latest issue of American Family Physician

Read the Issue

Email Alerts

Don't miss a single issue. Sign up for the free AFP email table of contents.

Sign Up Now

Navigate this Article