Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

 


FREE PREVIEW. AAFP members and paid subscribers: Log in to get free access. All others: Purchase online access.


FREE PREVIEW. Purchase online access to read the full version of this article.

Am Fam Physician. 2015 Apr 15;91(8):538-543.

  Related editorial: Pitfalls of Direct-to-Consumer Vascular Screening Tests.

  Related Putting Prevention into Practice: Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement: Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Recommendation Statement

Author disclosure: No relevant financial affiliations.

Abdominal aortic aneurysm refers to abdominal aortic dilation of 3.0 cm or greater. The main risk factors are age older than 65 years, male sex, and smoking history. Other risk factors include a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, coronary artery disease, hypertension, peripheral artery disease, and previous myocardial infarction. Diagnosis may be made by physical examination, an incidental finding on imaging, or ultrasonography. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released updated recommendations for abdominal aortic aneurysm screening in 2014. Men 65 to 75 years of age with a history of smoking should undergo one-time screening with ultrasonography based on evidence that screening will improve abdominal aortic aneurysm–related mortality in this population. Men in this age group without a history of smoking may benefit if they have other risk factors (e.g., family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, other vascular aneurysms, coronary artery disease). There is inconclusive evidence to recommend screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in women 65 to 75 years of age with a smoking history. Women without a smoking history should not undergo screening because the harms likely outweigh the benefits. Persons who have a stable abdominal aortic aneurysm should undergo regular surveillance or operative intervention depending on aneurysm size. Surgical intervention by open or endovascular repair is the primary option and is typically reserved for aneurysms 5.5 cm in diameter or greater. There are limited options for medical treatment beyond risk factor modification. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is a medical emergency presenting with hypotension, shooting abdominal or back pain, and a pulsatile abdominal mass. It is associated with high prehospitalization mortality. Emergent surgical intervention is indicated for a rupture but has a high operative mortality rate.

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an abdominal aortic dilation of 3.0 cm or greater.1 The prevalence of AAA increases with age. It is uncommon in persons younger than 50 years; however, 12.5% of men and 5.2% of women 74 to 84 years of age have AAA.1 It accounts for approximately 11,000 deaths each year in the United States, with mortality rates from ruptured AAAs reaching up to 90%.2

View/Print Table

SORT: KEY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE

Clinical recommendationEvidence ratingReferences

One-time screening for AAA with ultrasonography should be performed in men 65 to 75 years of age who have smoked 100 cigarettes or more in their lifetime.

B

4, 9

One-time screening for AAA with ultrasonography should be selectively offered in men 65 to 75 years of age who have never smoked, but have risk factors for AAA.

B

9

Current evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against AAA screening in women 65 to 75 years of age who have smoked 100 cigarettes or more in their lifetime.

B

9

AAA screening should not be performed in women who have never smoked.

B

9

Patients with AAAs 3.0 to 3.9 cm in diameter should be monitored with ultrasonography every two to three years.

C

1

Patients with AAAs 4.0 to 5.4 cm in diameter should be monitored with ultrasonography or computed tomography every six to 12 months.

C

1


AAA = abdominal aortic aneurysm.

A = consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence; B = inconsistent or limited-quality patient-oriented evidence; C = consensus, disease-oriented evidence, usual practice, expert opinion, or case series. For information about the SORT evidence rating system, go to http://www.aafp.org/afpsort.

SORT: KEY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE

Clinical recommendationEvidence ratingReferences

One-time screening for AAA with ultrasonography should be performed in men 65 to 75 years of age who have smoked 100 cigarettes or more in their lifetime.

B

4, 9

One-time screening for AAA with ultrasonography should be selectively offered in men 65 to 75 years of age who have never smoked, but have risk factors for AAA.

B

9

Current evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against AAA screening in women 65 to 75 years of age who have smoked 100 cigarettes or more in their lifetime.

B

9

AAA screening should not be performed in women who have never smoked.

B

9

Patients with AAAs 3.0 to 3.9 cm in diameter should be monitored with ultrasonography every two to three years.

C

1

Patients with AAAs 4.0 to 5.4 cm in diameter should be monitored with ultrasonography or computed tomography every six to 12 months.

C

1


AAA = abdominal aortic aneurysm.

A = consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence; B = inconsistent or limited-quality patient-oriented evidence; C = consensus, disease-oriented evidence, usual practice, expert opinion, or case series. For information about the SORT evidence rating system, go to http://www.aafp.org/afpsort.

Aneurysms develop as a result of degeneration of the arterial media and elastic tissues.1 Risk factors for AAA are similar to those of other cardiovascular diseases. The key risk factors are male sex, smoking, age older than 65 years, coronary artery disease, hypertension, previous myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, and a family history of AAA1,3,4  (Table 12,3). Blacks appear to be at lower risk.4

View/Print Table

Table 1.

Risk Factors for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

Atherosclerosis

Cerebrovascular disease

Coronary artery disease

First-degree relative with abdominal aortic aneurysm

History of other vascular aneurysms

Hypercholesterolemia

Hypertension

Male sex*

Obesity

Older age*

Tobacco use*


*—These risk factors are stressed by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force in terms of need for screening (men 65 to 75 years of age with a lifetime smoking history of at least 100 cigarettes). All risk factors should be considered when determining whether selective screening is necessary for men 65 to 75 years of age who have never smoked.

Information from references 2 and 3.

Table 1.

Risk Factors for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

Atherosclerosis

Cerebrovascular disease

Coronary artery disease

First-degree relative with abdominal aortic aneurysm

History of other vascular aneurysms

Hypercholesterolemia

Hypertension

Male sex*

Obesity

Older age*

Tobacco use*


*—These risk factors are stressed by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force in terms of need for screening (men 65 to 75 years of age with a lifetime smoking history of at least 100 cigarettes). All risk factors should be considered when determining whether selective screening is necessary for men 65 to 75 years of age who have never smoked.

Information from references 2 and 3.

Beyond the inherent risk of rupture, patients with AAA are also at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death independent of other factors.5 The degree to which risk factors impact AAA vs. atherosclerosis varies. For example, dyslipidemia is an important coronary artery disease risk factor, although its role in AAA remains uncertain, and diabetes mellitus may have a negative association with AAA.2,4

Presentation

Physical examination with abdominal palpation is only moderately sensitive for the detection of AAA, with one study demonstrating a sensitivity of 68% and specificity of 75%.6 The most common finding is palpation of a pulsatile mass around the level of the umbilicus. Abdominal auscultation may reveal the presence of a bruit. The accuracy of abdominal palpation is reduced by obesity, abdominal distention, and smaller aneurysm size. In particular, abdominal girth greater than 100 cm (39.4 in) is associated with decreased sensitivity for identification with palpation.6 An aneurysm may rarely produce findings related to compression of adjacent structures, such as lower extremity edema related to compression of the inferior vena cava.7

Diagnosis of AAA is often made as an incidental finding on imaging studies, such as abdominal ultrasonography or computed tomography (Figures 1 and 2). AAA may occasionally be visible on plain radiography, if the aneurysm wall is calcified.1

View/Print Figure

Figure 1.

Abdominal ultrasonography demonstrating a 4.5-cm aortic dilation.


Figure 1.

Abdominal ultrasonography demonstrating a 4.5-cm aortic dilation.

View/Print Figure

Figure 2.

Computed tomography demonstrating (A) normal caliber aorta and (B) calcified, dilated (3.7 cm) aorta in the same patient.


Figure 2.

Computed tomography demonstrating (A) normal caliber aorta and (B) calcified, dilated (3.7 cm) aorta in the same patient.

A ruptured AAA is a medical emergency associated with high mortality rates. The classic syndrome is characterized by hypotension, shooting abdominal or back pain, and a pulsatile abdominal mass. This triad may be incomplete or absent, and misdiagnosis can occur in up to 60% of cases. Therefore, physicians must be mindful of atypical presentations and attentive to new-onset, nonspecific back or abdominal pain in patients at risk of AAA.8

Screening

Because AAA is most often clinically silent, screening can improve detection. Ultrasonography has a high sensitivity and specificity (95% and nearly 100%, respectively) for detecting AAA when performed in a setting experienced in the use of ultrasonography.4,9 Additionally, there are no significant harms associated with abdominal ultrasonography.4 Although larger studies are needed, preliminary data suggest that family physicians can be trained to successfully screen for AAA in the office setting.10

Four randomized, controlled, population-based studies provide much of the available data on AAA screening.1114 The Multicentre Aneurysm Screening Study was the largest, following approximately 70,000 men between 65 and 74 years of age for 10 years.11 Participants were randomized to an offer of ultrasonography or to a control group. Those with AAA detected at screening were followed by ultrasound surveillance or elective surgery based on predefined criteria. The reduction in AAA-related mortality improved from 42% at four-year follow-up to 48% at 10-year follow-up, demonstrating continued benefit over the duration of the study.11 This program also demonstrated continued cost-effectiveness, particularly as the study progressed, because the major costs of screening occur early with initial screening and intervention.15 Other data have substantiated the cost-effectiveness of AAA screening.16

As studies such as the Multicentre Aneurysm Screening Study indicate, the main benefit of screening is decreased AAA-related mortality.15 However, this does not translate to improved all-cause mortality in men or women.17 Persons with the greatest potential benefit from screening have the major risk factors of male sex, increased age, and history of smoking. Approximately 238 men older than 65 years need to be screened to prevent one AAA-related death.18,19 Men younger than 65 years and those who have never smoked have a lower risk of developing AAA.9 In addition, women are at lower risk of developing AAA. Available mortality data have not demonstrated significant benefit from screening women.4,18 Family history of AAA may be an important screening consideration because it doubles the risk, and some recommendations include this as a consideration for men and women.20

The risks of screening include the morbidity and mortality associated with elective repair. For example, open repair has a mortality rate of 4.2% and a complication rate of 32%.4 However, this risk is smaller than that of AAA-related mortality in the absence of screening. Other risks include a transient increase in anxiety and lower self-rated health scores among individuals being screened. These differences resolve within six weeks after screening.4

In 2014, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) updated its 2005 guideline on ultrasonography screening for AAA. The USPSTF continues to recommend one-time screening with ultrasonography for men 65 to 75 years of age with a history of smoking (level B recommendation).9 Of note, a history of smoking is defined as at least 100 cigarettes over the individual's lifetime. The USPSTF recommends that clinicians selectively offer screening in men 65 to 75 years of age who have never smoked (level C recommendation). Risk factors associated with a higher likelihood of AAA include first-degree relatives with AAA, history of other vascular aneurysms, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and hypertension (Table 12,3). Factors associated with a decreased risk of AAA include black race, Hispanic ethnicity, and diabetes. Of note, the perceived net benefit to screening this population is thought to be small.9

The main difference between the 2005 and 2014 guidelines involves screening in women. In 2005, the guideline recommended against screening in all women. The 2014 guideline has been updated to suggest that the benefit of screening in women 65 to 75 years of age with a history of smoking is inconclusive (level I statement). The USPSTF continues to recommend against screening in women 65 to 75 years of age who have never smoked (level D recommendation). Although men and women 74 to 84 years of age have increased risk of AAA, this group is less likely to benefit from screening and subsequent surgery because of competing comorbidities.1,9

Surveillance

The natural history of AAA shows that as aneurysms increase in size, they expand at a greater rate (Table 21 ) and the risk of rupture increases (Table 31,2). Therefore, in persons found to have aneurysms on initial screening, regular surveillance is needed every six months to three years, depending on aneurysm size. A meta-analysis found that each 0.5-cm increase in diameter increases the growth rate by 0.6 mm per year; however, this study also suggests that overall growth rates and risk of rupture are somewhat less than previously suggested and may support longer intervals for surveillance21  (Table 41,21,22).

View/Print Table

Table 2.

Growth Rates for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

Aneurysm diameterAverage annual expansion rate

3.0 to 3.9 cm

1 to 4 mm

4.0 to 6.0 cm

3 to 5 mm

> 6.0 cm

7 to 8 mm


Information from reference 1.

Table 2.

Growth Rates for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

Aneurysm diameterAverage annual expansion rate

3.0 to 3.9 cm

1 to 4 mm

4.0 to 6.0 cm

3 to 5 mm

> 6.0 cm

7 to 8 mm


Information from reference 1.

View/Print Table

Table 3.

Absolute Risk of Rupture for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

Aneurysm diameterAbsolute lifetime risk of rupture

5 cm

20%

6 cm

40%

7 cm

50%


Information from references 1 and 2.

Table 3.

Absolute Risk of Rupture for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

Aneurysm diameterAbsolute lifetime risk of rupture

5 cm

20%

6 cm

40%

7 cm

50%


Information from references 1 and 2.

View/Print Table

Table 4.

Surveillance for Patients with Stable Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

Surveillance interval
Aneurysm diameterACC/AHA guidelines1RESCAN Collaborators21

< 3.0 cm

No surveillance*

3.0 cm to 3.9 cm

Ultrasonography every two to three years

Three years

4.0 cm to 5.4 cm

Ultrasonography or computed tomography every six to 12 months

Two years for 4.0 to 4.4 cm

Consider surgical consultation for an aneurysm 5.0 cm or greater, or if expanding at a rate greater than expected for its size

> 5.4 cm

Surgical consultation for elective repair


ACC = American College of Cardiology; AHA = American Heart Association.

*—Clinicians may consider ongoing surveillance for at-risk patients with aortas 2.5 to 2.9 cm in diameter.22

Information from references 1, 21, and 22.

Table 4.

Surveillance for Patients with Stable Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

Surveillance interval
Aneurysm diameterACC/AHA guidelines1RESCAN Collaborators21

< 3.0 cm

No surveillance*

3.0 cm to 3.9 cm

Ultrasonography every two to three years

Three years

4.0 cm to 5.4 cm

Ultrasonography or computed tomography every six to 12 months

Two years for 4.0 to 4.4 cm

Consider surgical consultation for an aneurysm 5.0 cm or greater, or if expanding at a rate greater than expected for its size

> 5.4 cm

Surgical consultation for elective repair


ACC = American College of Cardiology; AHA = American Heart Association.

*—Clinicians may consider ongoing surveillance for at-risk patients with aortas 2.5 to 2.9 cm in diameter.22

Information from references 1, 21, and 22.

Several studies have compared the outcomes of early elective surgery vs. ongoing radiographic monitoring (by computed tomography or ultrasonography) for aneurysms between 3.0 and 5.5 cm. Surgery in the surveillance groups occurred only when the aneurysm exceeded 5.5 cm, expanded by more than 1 cm per year (another risk factor for rupture), or became tender or symptomatic.23 At later points in the follow-up period, there was some weak evidence that suggested a benefit to early surgical repair. The authors noted that this is possibly because those who underwent early surgery were more motivated to make lifestyle changes that may improve AAA-related outcomes, including a higher rate of smoking cessation.23 Overall, these studies suggest that the risks of operative management do not exceed mortality benefits, and that survival is not improved by elective surgery for aneurysms smaller than 5.5 cm.24

Current guidelines do not advocate rescreening persons with an aortic diameter smaller than 3.0 cm.9,11 In the Multi-centre Aneurysm Screening Study, persons with negative screening results (smaller than 3.0 cm diameter) were not rescreened later. The rate of AAA rupture in this group did increase over the duration of the study; however, the increase was not enough to offset the continued reduction in AAA-mortality in the study overall.11 Conversely, a prospective cohort study of men 67 to 74 years of age found that those with aortic diameters of 2.5 to 2.9 cm, also known as aortic ectasia, on initial screening had an increased risk of subsequent AAA diagnosis compared with those who had aortas measuring 2.4 cm or less. Thus, these persons could be considered for retesting, although present data do not support the cost effectiveness of this approach.11,22

Treatment

MEDICAL

Several nonsurgical options have been studied for the potential ability to slow aneurysm progression. Smoking cessation may help because smoking causes an incremental increased growth rate of up to 0.4 mm per year.25 In terms of pharmacologic therapy, statins, antihypertensives, and antibiotics have been studied. Beta blockers are known to improve perioperative mortality for AAA repair; however, randomized trial results indicate that their effects on AAA enlargement are not significant.

Other antihypertensives (e.g., angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) also do not appear to be effective.26,27 Although there have been recommendations supporting statin use, the evidence for reducing AAA growth or rupture has been poor, and better-quality studies do not indicate a direct benefit.27,28 Statins are likely to be used for overall cardiovascular risk reduction and do improve all-cause mortality in patients after AAA repair.28 Additionally, roxithromycin (a macrolide antibiotic not available in the United States) and doxycycline have weak evidence for inhibiting AAA growth, because secondary infection in the aortic wall, likely from Chlamydophila pneumoniae, may promote AAA progression.27,29

SURGICAL

Elective Repair of Stable AAA. A diameter of 5.5 cm has been used in many protocols as a threshold for performing elective surgery, particularly for infrarenal and juxtarenal aneurysms. At this size, it is thought that the benefits of surgery outweigh the risks. Open and endovascular repair are the two main approaches. Multiple studies have shown that there is no significant difference between the two approaches in terms of overall long-term mortality.30,31 Open repair carries a 30-day mortality risk between 4% and 5%. The less-invasive endovascular approach has gained favor because of improved early outcomes, with a 30-day mortality risk between 1% and 2%.30 However, studies have shown that the mortality benefits initially reported with endovascular repair are essentially gone by two to three years postprocedure.3032

In addition, patients undergoing endovascular repair have a higher rate of graft complications and need for secondary interventions compared with patients undergoing open repair. This may make endovascular repair less cost-effective in the long term.30 The patient's age may also play a role in which procedure is more beneficial. One study demonstrated improved survival with endovascular repair in patients younger than 70 years, whereas patients 70 years or older tended to do better with open repair.32

Emergent Repair of Ruptured AAA. Ruptured AAAs cause an estimated 4% to 5% of sudden deaths in the United States. Up to 50% of patients with ruptured AAAs do not reach the hospital, and those who do survive to the operating room have a mortality rate as high as 50%.33 Much like elective repair, studies thus far have not identified a statistically significant difference in survival with endovascular vs. open repair of ruptured AAA.34 Factors that appear to impact survival include decreased time from presentation to operative intervention, and the presence of a surgical team experienced in AAA repair.35

Data Sources: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key terms abdominal aortic aneurysm, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. Also searched were Essential Evidence Plus and the Cochrane database. The search included meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, and reviews. Search dates: January 13, 2012; May 13, 2012; and August 18, 2014.

The Authors

show all author info

BRIAN KEISLER, MD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Family and Preventive Medicine at the University of South Carolina School of Medicine in Columbia, S.C. He is also a faculty member at Palmetto Health Family Medicine Residency in Columbia....

CHUCK CARTER, MD, is an associate professor in the Department of Family and Preventive Medicine at the University of South Carolina School of Medicine. He is also residency director at Palmetto Health Family Medicine Residency.

Address correspondence to Brian Keisler, MD, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, 3209 Colonial Drive, Columbia, SC 29203. Reprints are not available from the authors.

Author disclosure: No relevant financial affiliations.

REFERENCES

show all references

1. Hirsch AT, Haskal ZJ, Hertzer NR, et al. ACC/AHA 2005 Practice guidelines for the management of patients with peripheral arterial disease (lower extremity, renal, mesenteric, and abdominal aortic): a collaborative report from the American Association for Vascular Surgery/Society for Vascular Surgery, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology, Society of Interventional Radiology, and the ACC/AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2006;113(11):e463–e654....

2. Roger VL, Go AS, Lloyd-Jones DM, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2012 update: a report from the American Heart Association [published correction appears in Circulation. 2012;125(22):e1002]. Circulation. 2012;125(1):e2–e220.

3. Cornuz J, Sidoti Pinto C, Tevaearai H, Egger M. Risk factors for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm: systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based screening studies. Eur J Public Health. 2004;14(4):343–349.

4. Guirguis-Blake JM, Beil TL, Senger CA, Whitlock EP. Ultrasonography screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: a systematic evidence review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160(5):321–329.

5. Newman AB, Arnold AM, Burke GL, O'Leary DH, Manolio TA. Cardiovascular disease and mortality in older adults with small abdominal aortic aneurysms detected by ultrasonography: the cardiovascular health study. Ann Intern Med. 2001;134(3):182–190.

6. Fink HA, Lederle FA, Roth CS, Bowles CA, Nelson DB, Haas MA. The accuracy of physical examination to detect abdominal aortic aneurysm. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(6):833–836.

7. Brandão D, Simões JC, Canedo A, et al. Occlusion of inferior vena cava: a singular presentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Case Rep Med. 2009;2009:827954.

8. Akkersdijk GJ, van Bockel JH. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: initial misdiagnosis and the effect on treatment. Eur J Surg. 1998;164(1):29–34.

9. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm: recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161(4):281–290.

10. Blois B. Office-based ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Can Fam Physician. 2012;58(3):e172–e178.

11. Thompson SG, Ashton HA, Gao L, Scott RA. Screening men for abdominal aortic aneurysm: 10 year mortality and cost effectiveness results from the randomised Multicentre Aneurysm Screening Study. BMJ. 2009;338:b2307.

12. Scott RA, Wilson NM, Ashton HA, Kay DN. Influence of screening on the incidence of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: 5–year results of a randomized controlled study. Br J Surg. 1995;82(8):1066–1070.

13. Lindholt JS, Juul S, Fasting H, Henneberg EW. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: single centre randomised controlled trial [published correction appears in BMJ. 2005;331(7521):876]. BMJ. 2005;330(7494):750.

14. Norman PE, Jamrozik K, Lawrence-Brown MM, et al. Population based randomised controlled trial on impact of screening on mortality from abdominal aortic aneurysm [published correction appears in BMJ. 2005;330(7491):596]. BMJ. 2004;329(7477):1259.

15. Kim LG, P Scott RA, Ashton HA, Thompson SG; Multicentre Aneurysm Screening Study Group. A sustained mortality benefit from screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm [published correction appears in Ann Intern Med. 2007;147(3):216]. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146(10):699–706.

16. Søgaard R, Laustsen J, Lindholt JS. Cost effectiveness of abdominal aortic aneurysm screening and rescreening in men in a modern context: evaluation of a hypothetical cohort using a decision analytical model. BMJ. 2012;345:e4276.

17. Cosford PA, Leng GC. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(2):CD002945.

18. Dabare D, Lo TT, McCormack DJ, Kung VW. What is the role of screening in the management of abdominal aortic aneurysms? Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2012;14(4):399–405.

19. Takagi H, Goto SN, Matsui M, Manabe H, Umemoto T. A further meta-analysis of population-based screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm. J Vasc Surg. 2010;52(4):1103–1108.

20. Moll FL, Powell JT, Fraedrich G, et al. Management of abdominal aortic aneurysms clinical practice guidelines of the European Society for Vascular Surgery. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2011;41(suppl 1):S1–S58.

21. Bown MJ, Sweeting MJ, Brown LC, Powell JT, Thompson SG; RESCAN Collaborators. Surveillance intervals for small abdominal aortic aneurysms: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2013;309(8):806–813.

22. Duncan JL, Harrild KA, Iversen L, Lee AJ, Godden DJ. Long term outcomes in men screened for abdominal aortic aneurysm: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2012;344:e2958.

23. United Kingdom Small Aneurysm Trial Participants. Long-term outcomes of immediate repair compared with surveillance of small abdominal aortic aneurysms. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(19):1445–1452.

24. Lederle FA, Wilson SE, Johnson GR, et al.; Aneurysm Detection and Management Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group. Immediate repair compared with surveillance of small abdominal aortic aneurysms. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(19):1437–1444.

25. Sweeting MJ, Thompson SG, Brown LC, Powell JT; RESCAN Collaborators. Meta-analysis of individual patient data to examine factors affecting growth and rupture of small abdominal aortic aneurysms. Br J Surg. 2012;99(5):655–665.

26. Guessous I, Periard D, Lorenzetti D, Cornuz J, Ghali WA. The efficacy of pharmacotherapy for decreasing the expansion rate of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2008;3(3):e1895.

27. Rughani G, Robertson L, Clarke M. Medical treatment for small abdominal aortic aneurysms. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;9:CD009536.

28. Twine CP, Williams IM. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of statin therapy on abdominal aortic aneurysms. Br J Surg. 2011;98(3):346–353.

29. Baxter BT, Terrin MC, Dalman RL. Medical management of small abdominal aortic aneurysms. Circulation. 2008;117(14):1883–1889.

30. Greenhalgh RM, Brown LC, Powell JT, Thompson SG, Epstein D, Sculpher MJ; United Kingdom EVAR Trial Investigators. Endovascular versus open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(20):1863–1871.

31. De Bruin JL, Baas AF, Buth J, et al.; DREAM Study Group. Long-term outcome of open or endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(20):1881–1889.

32. Lederle FA, Freischlag JA, Kyriakides TC, et al.; OVER Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group. Long-term comparison of endovascular and open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(21):1988–1997.

33. Aggarwal S, Qamar A, Sharma V, Sharma A. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: a comprehensive review. Exp Clin Cardiol. 2011;16(1):11–15.

34. Visser JJ, van Sambeek MR, Hamza TH, Hunink MG, Bosch JL. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms: endovascular repair versus open surgery—systematic review. Radiology. 2007;245(1):122–129.

35. Treska V, Certik B, Cechura M, Novak M. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms—university center experience. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2006;5(6):721–723.



 

Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP. Contact afpserv@aafp.org for copyright questions and/or permission requests.

Want to use this article elsewhere? Get Permissions


More in AFP


Editor's Collections


Related Content


More in Pubmed

MOST RECENT ISSUE


Dec 1, 2016

Access the latest issue of American Family Physician

Read the Issue


Email Alerts

Don't miss a single issue. Sign up for the free AFP email table of contents.

Sign Up Now

Navigate this Article