Editorials

Introducing a One-Page Adult Preventive Health Care Schedule: USPSTF Recommendations at a Glance

 

Am Fam Physician. 2016 May 1;93(9):738-740.

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is an independent voluntary panel of experts in primary care, prevention, and evidence-based practice. As of April 2016, the USPSTF has recommendation statements for more than 80 active topics, most of which are endorsed by the American Academy of Family Physicians.1 Its process has been recognized by the Institute of Medicine as a model for development of evidence-based practice guidelines.2

However, numerous barriers exist to implementing these guidelines, including knowledge, time, insurance, and social barriers.3 For example, knowledge of USPSTF colorectal cancer screening components ranged from 22% to 53% in first- through third-year medical residents.4 One recent survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found significant gaps in physicians' knowledge regarding the value of screening tests for ovarian and colorectal cancer.5 Another survey found significant levels of nonadherence to USPSTF recommendations, including beginning cervical cancer screening too early, continuing it too long, and performing it annually rather than every three years as recommended.6

In addition, recommendations for behavioral counseling are often not implemented. For example, counseling for tobacco cessation was documented in only 21% of visits in which tobacco use was documented.7 This gap between guideline recommendations and actual practice has the potential to worsen as recommendations become more complex, vary by age group, and increasingly require risk assessment, as with recommendations for mammography, breast cancer chemoprevention, screening for the BRCA gene mutation, and screening for hepatitis B and C virus infections.

With the passage of the Affordable Care Act in 2010, the USPSTF guidelines have taken on new significance. Specifically, grade A and B recommendations must be covered without cost-sharing requirements for patients in nongrandfathered insurance plans.8 Currently, several resources are available to help physicians understand and implement recommendations:

  • Electronic Preventive Services Selector (http://www.epss.ahrq.gov/PDA/index.jsp): an electronic resource allowing physicians to input a patient's characteristics to find applicable USPSTF preventive health care recommendations.

  • USPSTF website (http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org): a web-based resource of all active and inactive recommendations, as well as those referring to another organization, such as the CDC.

  • Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, 20149: an 85-page document (excluding appendices) providing summaries of USPSTF recommendations.

Although these resources are helpful, there has been no concise visual representation of USPSTF recommendations as there is for immunization recommendations (http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/adult.html#print). The goals of such a schedule are the following:

  • Simplicity (excludes childhood and pregnancy-related topics)

  • Familiarity (such as a visual format similar to the CDC vaccine schedule)

  • Concise presentation

  • Informative

  • Easily disseminated

The Adult Preventive Health Care Schedule meets these criteria. Although it is not everything a family physician needs to know about screening and prevention, it provides a practical clinical aid. We hope this helps physicians bridge some of the knowledge gaps of USPSTF recommendations and apply them to their practice.

editor's note: The authors will periodically update the online version of this table and supporting documents throughout the year to make it as current a resource as possible. We plan to run an updated version of this table once a year, similar to the annual immunization schedules. In the online PDF, note that there are links in the main table's risk factors to mini-tables showing what those risk factors are.

Dr. Ebell is Deputy Editor for Evidence-Based Medicine for AFP, and a member of the USPSTF. This editorial and accompanying figure were produced independently of the USPSTF and do not necessarily represent the views and policies of the USPSTF.

Dr. Swenson developed the original version of the preventive schedule with coauthors Coya Lindberg, Cynthia Carillo, MD, and Joshua Clutter, MD, as a resident at the University of Arizona.

Address correspondence to Paul F. Swenson, MD, at paul.swenson@gmail.com. Reprints are not available from the authors.

Author disclosure: No relevant financial affiliations.

REFERENCES

show all references

1. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Published recommendations. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/BrowseRec/Index. Accessed January 30, 2016....

2. Graham R, Mancher M, Wolman DM, Greenfield S, Steinberg E, eds.; Committee on Standards for Developing Trustworthy Clinical Practice Guidelines; Institute of Medicine. Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2011

3. Yarnall KS, Pollak KI, Østbye T, Krause KM, Michener JL. Primary care: is there enough time for prevention? Am J Public Health. 2003;93(4):635–641.

4. Akerman S, Aronson SL, Cerulli MA, Akerman M, Sultan K. Resident knowledge of colorectal cancer screening assessed by web-based survey. J Clin Med Res. 2014;6(2):120–126.

5. Miller, et al. Physicians' beliefs about effectiveness of cancer screening tests: a national survey of family physicians, general internists, and obstetrician-gynecologists. Prev Med. 2014;69:37–42.

6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Cancer screening—United States, 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61(3):41–45.

7. Jamal A, Dube SR, Malarcher AM, et al. Tobacco use screening and counseling during physician office visits among adults—National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2005–2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61 suppl:38–45.

8. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Affordable Care Act implementation FAQs—set 12. https://www.cms.gov/CCIIO/Resources/Fact-Sheets-and-FAQs/aca_implementation_faqs12.html. Accessed June 28, 2015.

9. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Information for health professionals. August 2014. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Name/tools-and-resources-for-better-preventive-care. Accessed June 28, 2015.

View/Print Figure

CHD = coronary heart disease; CVD = cardiovascular disease; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; USPSTF = U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

Visual adaptation from recommendation statements by Swenson PF, Lindberg C, Carrilo C, and Clutter J.


CHD = coronary heart disease; CVD = cardiovascular disease; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; USPSTF = U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

Visual adaptation from recommendation statements by Swenson PF, Lindberg C, Carrilo C, and Clutter J.

View/Print Table

Adult Preventive Health Care Schedule: Recommendations from the USPSTF

Grade A/B Recommendations (with Associated Grade C/D/I Recommendations):

Alcohol misuse screening1

(B) Screen adults and provide brief behavioral interventions for risky alcohol use

Depression screening2

(B) Screen adults with systems for evaluation and management

Hypertension screening3

(A) Screen adults; exclude white coat hypertension before starting therapy

Obesity screening4

(B) Screen adults and offer or refer patients with body mass index ≥ 30 kg per m2 to intensive behavioral interventions

Tobacco use screening5

(A) Screen adults and provide behavioral and U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved intervention therapy for cessation

(I) IETRFOA electronic nicotine delivery systems for tobacco cessation

Human immunodeficiency virus screening6

(A) Screen individuals 15 to 65 years of age

(A) Screen older and younger persons who are at increased risk

Hepatitis B virus infection screening7

(B) Screen adolescents and adults at high risk

Syphilis screening8 (UIP)

(A) Screen individuals at increased risk

(D) Recommend against routine screening if normal risk

BRCA screening9

(B) Screen women with appropriate family history

(D) Recommend against screening patients without appropriate family history

Chlamydia and gonorrhea screening10

(B) Screen sexually active women 24 years and younger, and women at increased risk who are 25 years and older

(I) IETRFOA screening sexually active males

Intimate partner violence screening11

(B) Screen women of childbearing age and refer to appropriate services

(I) IETRFOA screening all vulnerable and elderly patients for abuse or neglect

Cervical cancer screening12 (UIP)

(A) Screen women 21 to 65 years of age

  • Papanicolaou smear every three years

  • Women 30 to 65 years of age may increase screening interval to five years with cytology and human papillomavirus cotesting

(D) Recommend against screening in women

  • Age 20 years and younger

  • Older than 65 years if adequately screened previously and no increased risk of cervical cancer

  • With hysterectomy (including cervix) without history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3 or cervical cancer

  • Younger than 30 years with human papillomavirus testing alone or in combination with cytology

Lipid disorder screening13 (UIP)

(A) Screen men 35 years and older

(A) Screen women 45 years and older at increased risk of CHD

(B) Screen men 20 to 35 years of age and women 20 to 45 years of age at increased CHD risk

(C) No recommendations for or against screening men 20 to 35 years of age and women 20 to 45 years of age without increased CHD risk

Abnormal glucose and diabetes mellitus type 2 screening14

(B) Screen overweight or obese adults 40 to 70 years of age and refer patients with abnormal glucose levels for intensive counseling for healthy diet and exercise

Hepatitis C virus infection screening15

(B) Offer one-time screening of patients born between 1945 and 1965

(B) Screen high-risk patients

Colorectal cancer screening16 (UIP)

(A) Screen patients 50 to 75 years of age with fecal occult blood testing, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy

(C) Recommend against routine screening of patients 76 to 85 years of age

(D) Recommend against screening patients 86 years and older

(I) IETRFOA for screening with computed tomography colonography or fecal DNA

Breast cancer screening17

(B) Biennial screening mammography in women 50 to 74 years of age

(C) Screening is an individualized decision for women 40 to 49 years of age

(I) IETRFOA

  • Mammography after 75 years of age

  • Screening with digital breast tomosynthesis

  • Adjunctive screening in women with dense breast tissue and negative screening mammogram

Lung cancer screening18

(B) Screen annually with low-dose computed tomography for individuals 55 to 80 years of age with a 30 pack-year history who currently smoke or quit within the past 15 years; consider overall health in decision to screen

Osteoporosis screening19 (UIP)

(B) Screen women 65 years and older

(B) Screen women if fracture risk equal to that of a 65-year-old white woman without other risk factors (9.3% in 10 years by U.S. FRAX [Fracture Risk Assessment] tool)

(I) IETRFOA screening men

Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening20

(B) Screen men 65 to 75 years of age who ever smoked (100 or greater lifetime cigarettes) with one-time abdominal aortic aneurysm ultrasonography

(C) Recommend selective screening of never-smoking men 65 to 75 years of age

(I) IETRFOA women 65 to 75 years of age who ever smoked

(D) Recommend against routine screening in never-smoking women 65 to 75 years of age

Primary prevention of breast cancer 21

(B) Recommend shared decision making for medications (such as tamoxifen and raloxifene) that reduce risk of breast cancer in women at increased risk

(D) Recommend against routine use if no increased risk

Folic acid supplementation22 (UIP)

(A) 0.4 to 0.8 mg daily for women capable of conception

Aspirin for cardiovascular risk reduction23 (UIP)

(A) Recommend aspirin use in men 45 to 79 years of age for reduction in myocardial infarction if benefit outweighs risk

(A) Recommend aspirin use in women 55 to 79 years of age for reduction in ischemic stroke if benefit outweighs risk

(I) IETRFOA aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular risk reduction in individuals 80 years and older

(D) Recommend against use of aspirin for CVD primary prevention in men younger than 45 years and women younger than 55 years

Fall prevention in older adults24 (UIP)

(B) Recommend exercise or physical therapy and vitamin D supplementation for fall prevention in community-dwelling individuals 65 years and older at increased risk of falls

(C) Recommend against automatic comprehensive screening for fall risk in community-dwelling older adults

Counseling to prevent sexually transmitted infection25

(B) Recommend counseling to prevent sexually transmitted infection for adolescents and adults at increased risk

Counseling to promote healthy diet and physical activity 26

(B) Recommend that overweight or obese patients with other CVD risk factor(s) be offered or referred for intensive behavioral counseling

Counseling for skin cancer prevention27

(B) Recommend counseling fair-skinned patients 10 to 24 years of age about minimizing ultraviolet light exposure

(I) IETRFOA counseling individuals older then 24 years about reducing risk of skin cancer

Grade C Recommendations:

Physical activity and healthy diet counseling to reduce cardiovascular risk28 (UIP)

Grade D Recommendations:

Aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for prevention of colorectal cancer 29 (UIP)

Bacteriuria (asymptomatic) screening in men and nonpregnant women30

Beta carotene or vitamin E supplementation for CVD or cancer risk reduction31

Carotid artery stenosis screening32

CHD screening with resting or exercise electrocardiography in low-risk patients33

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease screening with spirometry 34

Combined estrogen-progesterone for prevention of chronic conditions or estrogen for the same in patients with hysterectomy 35 (UIP)

Genital herpes screening36 (UIP)

Ovarian cancer screening37 (UIP)

Pancreatic cancer screening38

Prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen39 (UIP)

Testicular cancer screening40

Vitamin D screening in community-dwelling nonpregnant adults41

Vitamin D (≤ 400 IU) and calcium (≤ 1,000 mg) supplementation daily for primary prevention of fracture in noninstitutionalized postmenopausal women42

Grade I Recommendations:

Bladder cancer screening43

CHD screening with nontraditional risk factors44 (UIP)

CHD screening with resting or exercise electrocardiography in intermediate- to high-risk patients33

Chronic kidney disease screening45

Cognitive impairment screening in older adults46

Combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation in men or premenopausal women42

Hearing loss screening in older adults47

Illicit drug use screening48

Impaired visual acuity screening in older adults49

Multivitamin, single nutrient or paired nutrients for CVD or cancer risk reduction (beta carotene and vitamin E, as above)31

Oral cancer screening50

Peripheral artery disease and CVD risk screening with ankle-brachial index51

Primary open-angle glaucoma screening52

Skin cancer screening (whole body) in primary care53 (UIP)

Suicide risk screening54

Thyroid dysfunction screening55

Vitamin D (> 400 IU) and calcium (> 1,000 mg) supplementation daily for primary prevention of fracture in noninstitutionalized postmenopausal women42


CHD = coronary heart disease; CVD = cardiovascular disease; IETRFOA = insufficient evidence to recommend for or against; UIP = update in progress; USPSTF = U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

Adult Preventive Health Care Schedule: Recommendations from the USPSTF

Grade A/B Recommendations (with Associated Grade C/D/I Recommendations):

Alcohol misuse screening1

(B) Screen adults and provide brief behavioral interventions for risky alcohol use

Depression screening2

(B) Screen adults with systems for evaluation and management

Hypertension screening3

(A) Screen adults; exclude white coat hypertension before starting therapy

Obesity screening4

(B) Screen adults and offer or refer patients with body mass index ≥ 30 kg per m2 to intensive behavioral interventions

Tobacco use screening5

(A) Screen adults and provide behavioral and U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved intervention therapy for cessation

(I) IETRFOA electronic nicotine delivery systems for tobacco cessation

Human immunodeficiency virus screening6

(A) Screen individuals 15 to 65 years of age

(A) Screen older and younger persons who are at increased risk

Hepatitis B virus infection screening7

(B) Screen adolescents and adults at high risk

Syphilis screening8 (UIP)

(A) Screen individuals at increased risk

(D) Recommend against routine screening if normal risk

BRCA screening9

(B) Screen women with appropriate family history

(D) Recommend against screening patients without appropriate family history

Chlamydia and gonorrhea screening10

(B) Screen sexually active women 24 years and younger, and women at increased risk who are 25 years and older

(I) IETRFOA screening sexually active males

Intimate partner violence screening11

(B) Screen women of childbearing age and refer to appropriate services

(I) IETRFOA screening all vulnerable and elderly patients for abuse or neglect

Cervical cancer screening12 (UIP)

(A) Screen women 21 to 65 years of age

  • Papanicolaou smear every three years

  • Women 30 to 65 years of age may increase screening interval to five years with cytology and human papillomavirus cotesting

(D) Recommend against screening in women

  • Age 20 years and younger

  • Older than 65 years if adequately screened previously and no increased risk of cervical cancer

  • With hysterectomy (including cervix) without history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3 or cervical cancer

  • Younger than 30 years with human papillomavirus testing alone or in combination with cytology

Lipid disorder screening13 (UIP)

(A) Screen men 35 years and older

(A) Screen women 45 years and older at increased risk of CHD

(B) Screen men 20 to 35 years of age and women 20 to 45 years of age at increased CHD risk

(C) No recommendations for or against screening men 20 to 35 years of age and women 20 to 45 years of age without increased CHD risk

Abnormal glucose and diabetes mellitus type 2 screening14

(B) Screen overweight or obese adults 40 to 70 years of age and refer patients with abnormal glucose levels for intensive counseling for healthy diet and exercise

Hepatitis C virus infection screening15

(B) Offer one-time screening of patients born between 1945 and 1965

(B) Screen high-risk patients

Colorectal cancer screening16 (UIP)

(A) Screen patients 50 to 75 years of age with fecal occult blood testing, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy

(C) Recommend against routine screening of patients 76 to 85 years of age

(D) Recommend against screening patients 86 years and older

(I) IETRFOA for screening with computed tomography colonography or fecal DNA

Breast cancer screening17

(B) Biennial screening mammography in women 50 to 74 years of age

(C) Screening is an individualized decision for women 40 to 49 years of age

(I) IETRFOA

  • Mammography after 75 years of age

  • Screening with digital breast tomosynthesis

  • Adjunctive screening in women with dense breast tissue and negative screening mammogram

Lung cancer screening18

(B) Screen annually with low-dose computed tomography for individuals 55 to 80 years of age with a 30 pack-year history who currently smoke or quit within the past 15 years; consider overall health in decision to screen

Osteoporosis screening19 (UIP)

(B) Screen women 65 years and older

(B) Screen women if fracture risk equal to that of a 65-year-old white woman without other risk factors (9.3% in 10 years by U.S. FRAX [Fracture Risk Assessment] tool)

(I) IETRFOA screening men

Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening20

(B) Screen men 65 to 75 years of age who ever smoked (100 or greater lifetime cigarettes) with one-time abdominal aortic aneurysm ultrasonography

(C) Recommend selective screening of never-smoking men 65 to 75 years of age

(I) IETRFOA women 65 to 75 years of age who ever smoked

(D) Recommend against routine screening in never-smoking women 65 to 75 years of age

Primary prevention of breast cancer 21

(B) Recommend shared decision making for medications (such as tamoxifen and raloxifene) that reduce risk of breast cancer in women at increased risk

(D) Recommend against routine use if no increased risk

Folic acid supplementation22 (UIP)

(A) 0.4 to 0.8 mg daily for women capable of conception

Aspirin for cardiovascular risk reduction23 (UIP)

(A) Recommend aspirin use in men 45 to 79 years of age for reduction in myocardial infarction if benefit outweighs risk

(A) Recommend aspirin use in women 55 to 79 years of age for reduction in ischemic stroke if benefit outweighs risk

(I) IETRFOA aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular risk reduction in individuals 80 years and older

(D) Recommend against use of aspirin for CVD primary prevention in men younger than 45 years and women younger than 55 years

Fall prevention in older adults24 (UIP)

(B) Recommend exercise or physical therapy and vitamin D supplementation for fall prevention in community-dwelling individuals 65 years and older at increased risk of falls

(C) Recommend against automatic comprehensive screening for fall risk in community-dwelling older adults

Counseling to prevent sexually transmitted infection25

(B) Recommend counseling to prevent sexually transmitted infection for adolescents and adults at increased risk

Counseling to promote healthy diet and physical activity 26

(B) Recommend that overweight or obese patients with other CVD risk factor(s) be offered or referred for intensive behavioral counseling

Counseling for skin cancer prevention27

(B) Recommend counseling fair-skinned patients 10 to 24 years of age about minimizing ultraviolet light exposure

(I) IETRFOA counseling individuals older then 24 years about reducing risk of skin cancer

Grade C Recommendations:

Physical activity and healthy diet counseling to reduce cardiovascular risk28 (UIP)

Grade D Recommendations:

Aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for prevention of colorectal cancer 29 (UIP)

Bacteriuria (asymptomatic) screening in men and nonpregnant women30

Beta carotene or vitamin E supplementation for CVD or cancer risk reduction31

Carotid artery stenosis screening32

CHD screening with resting or exercise electrocardiography in low-risk patients33

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease screening with spirometry 34

Combined estrogen-progesterone for prevention of chronic conditions or estrogen for the same in patients with hysterectomy 35 (UIP)

Genital herpes screening36 (UIP)

Ovarian cancer screening37 (UIP)

Pancreatic cancer screening38

Prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen39 (UIP)

Testicular cancer screening40

Vitamin D screening in community-dwelling nonpregnant adults41

Vitamin D (≤ 400 IU) and calcium (≤ 1,000 mg) supplementation daily for primary prevention of fracture in noninstitutionalized postmenopausal women42

Grade I Recommendations:

Bladder cancer screening43

CHD screening with nontraditional risk factors44 (UIP)

CHD screening with resting or exercise electrocardiography in intermediate- to high-risk patients33

Chronic kidney disease screening45

Cognitive impairment screening in older adults46

Combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation in men or premenopausal women42

Hearing loss screening in older adults47

Illicit drug use screening48

Impaired visual acuity screening in older adults49

Multivitamin, single nutrient or paired nutrients for CVD or cancer risk reduction (beta carotene and vitamin E, as above)31

Oral cancer screening50

Peripheral artery disease and CVD risk screening with ankle-brachial index51

Primary open-angle glaucoma screening52

Skin cancer screening (whole body) in primary care53 (UIP)

Suicide risk screening54

Thyroid dysfunction screening55

Vitamin D (> 400 IU) and calcium (> 1,000 mg) supplementation daily for primary prevention of fracture in noninstitutionalized postmenopausal women42


CHD = coronary heart disease; CVD = cardiovascular disease; IETRFOA = insufficient evidence to recommend for or against; UIP = update in progress; USPSTF = U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

REFERENCESshow all references

1. Moyer VA. Screening and behavior counseling interventions in primary care to reduce alcohol misuse: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(3):210–218....

2. Siu AL. Screening for depression in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2016;315(4):380–387.

3. Siu AL. Screening for high blood pressure in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(10):778–786.

4. Moyer VA. Screening for and managment of obesity in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157(5):373–378.

5. Siu AL. Behvioral and pharmacotherapy interventions for tobacco smoking cessation in adults, including pregnant women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2015;16(8):622–634.

6. Moyer VA. Screening for HIV: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(1):51–60.

7. LeFevre ML. Screening for hepatitis B virus infection in nonpregnant adolescents and adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161(1):58–66.

8. Calonge N. Screening for syphilis infection: recommendation statement [published correction appears in Ann Fam Med. 2004;2(5):517]. Ann Fam Med. 2004;2(4):362–365.

9. Moyer VA. Risk assessment, genetic counseling, and genetic testing for BRCA-related cancer in women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160(4):271–281.

10. LeFevre ML. Screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161(12):902–910.

11. Moyer VA. Screening for intimate partner violence and abuse of elderly and vulnerable adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158(6):478–486.

12. Moyer VA. Screening for cervical cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement [published correction appears in Ann Intern Med. 2013;158(11):852]. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156(12):880–891.

13. Screening for lipid disoders in adults [summary]. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. 2008. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Topic/recommendation-summary/lipid-disorders-in-adults-cholesterol-dyslipidemia-screening. Accessed July 1, 2015.

14. Sui AL. Screening for abnormal blood glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(11):861–868.

15. Moyer VA. Screening for hepatitis C virus infection in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(5):349–357.

16. Screening for colorectal cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149(9):627–637.

17. Siu AL. Screening for breast cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2016;164(4):279–296.

18. Moyer VA. Screening for lung cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160(5):330–338.

19. Screening for osteoporosis: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154(5):356–364.

20. LeFevre ML. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161(4):281–290.

21. Moyer VA. Medication for risk reduction of primary breast cancer in women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(10):698–708.

22. Folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150(9):626–631.

23. Aspirin for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150(6):396–404.

24. Moyer VA. Prevention of falls in community-dwelling older adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157(3):197–204.

25. LeFevre ML. Behavioral counseling interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161(12):894–901.

26. LeFevre ML. Behavioral counseling to promote a healthful diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention in adults with cardiovascular risk factors: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161(8):587–593.

27. Behavioral counseling to prevent skin cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157(1):59–65.

28. Moyer VA. Behavioral counseling interventions to promote a healthful diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157(5):367–372.

29. Routine aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the primary prevention of colorectal cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146(5):361–364.

30. Screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149(1):43–47.

31. Moyer VA. Vitamins, mineral, and multivitamin supplements for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160(8):558–564.

32. LeFevre ML. Screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stensosis: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement [published correction appears in Ann Intern Med. 2015;162(4):323]. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161(5):256–262.

33. Moyer VA. Screening for coronary heart disease with electrocardiography: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157(7):512–518.

34. Siu AL. Screening for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2016;315(13):1372–1377.

35. Moyer VA. Menopausal hormone therapy for primary prevention of chronic conditions: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012;158(1):47–54.

36. Screening for genital herpes [summary]. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. 2005. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Topic/recommendation-summary/genital-herpes-screening. Accessed July 1, 2015.

37. Moyer VA. Screening for ovarian cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157(21):900–904.

38. Screening for pancreatic cancer [summary]. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. 2004. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Topic/recommendation-summary/pancreatic-cancer-screening. Accessed July 1, 2015.

39. Moyer VA. Screening for prostate cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157(2):120–134.

40. Screening for testicular cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154(7):483–486.

41. LeFevre ML. Screening for vitamin D deficiency in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2015;162(2):133–140.

42. Moyer VA. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation to prevent fractures in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158(9):691–696.

43. Moyer VA. Screening for bladder cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement [published correction appears in Ann Intern Med. 2011;155(6):408]. Ann Intern Med. 2011;155(4):246–251.

44. Using nontraditional risk factors in coronary heart disease risk assessment: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151(17):474–482.

45. Moyer VA. Screening for chronic kidney disease: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157(8):567–570.

46. Moyer VA. Screening for cognitive impairment in older adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160(11):791–797.

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