AFP DEPARTMENT COLLECTION
FPIN's Help Desk Answers
Sep 1, 2016 Issue
Alternatives to Metformin for Patients with PCOS
Compared with placebo, thiazolidinediones (TZDs) decrease systolic blood pressure and fasting blood glucose and insulin levels while improving menstrual irregularities in women with PCOS. Metformin and TZDs have similar effects on pregnancy rates, ovulation, and menstrual frequency, but TZDs can cause weight gain and lower free testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels to a greater degree, whereas metformin reduces body mass index (BMI) and serum triglyceride levels to a greater degree.
Aug 1, 2016 Issue
Exercise to Improve Functioning in Patients with Dementia
Exercise programs lasting at least two months moderately increase the ability of patients with dementia to perform ADLs.
Jun 1, 2016 Issue
Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System vs. Oral Progestins for Treatment of Endometrial Hyperplasia
The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system achieves significantly higher resolution rates of endometrial hyperplasia without atypia compared with cyclic oral progestins (68% to 100% vs. 48% to 69%, respectively).
May 1, 2016 Issue
Alpha-Lipoic Acid for Treatment of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Intravenous (IV) ALA can improve neuropathy symptoms when administered for three weeks, but symptom improvement with oral ALA is not clinically significant. There is no evidence evaluating long-term treatment.
Apr 1, 2016 Issue
Nonpharmaceutical Treatment of Anxiety in Institutionalized Older Adults
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or relaxation training, alone or in combination, can be used to treat anxiety in older adults. Music therapy can also be used to reduce anxiety in older adults. Appropriate training of institutional caregivers is also helpful in reducing anxiety in older adults.
Mar 15, 2016 Issue
Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation
Nicotine-containing e-cigarettes may be more effective than placebo devices for smoking cessation. They may also aid in smoking reduction, but the quality of available evidence is low. Little is known about their safety.
Feb 15, 2016 Issue
Labor Induction at Term
Oral misoprostol (Cytotec), vaginal and intracervical prostaglandins, and mechanical methods are effective for induction of labor at term. The use of intravenous oxytocin (Pitocin) increases the risk of failure to achieve vaginal delivery at 24 hours and the risk of cesarean delivery compared with prostaglandins and mechanical methods of labor induction.
Dec 1, 2015 Issue
Chlorthalidone vs. Hydrochlorothiazide for Treatment of Hypertension
Chlorthalidone produces slightly greater reductions in blood pressure compared with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), but it is associated with greater declines in serum potassium levels. Chlorthalidone lowers the risk of cardiovascular events about 18% more than HCTZ at the same achieved blood pressure.
Oct 15, 2015 Issue
Reducing Amputation Rates After Severe Frostbite
In patients with severe frostbite, tPA plus a prostacyclin may be used to decrease the risk of digital amputation. tPA can be used alone and is associated with lower amputation rates compared with local wound care.