AFP DEPARTMENT COLLECTION

Cochrane for Clinicians

These are summaries of reviews from the Cochrane Library.

May 1, 2017 Issue
Beta2 Agonists for Acute Cough or a Clinical Diagnosis of Acute Bronchitis
There is insufficient evidence to determine whether beta2 agonists can improve symptoms for children with acute cough or bronchitis with wheeze. Beta2 agonists are not likely to benefit and may cause adverse effects in adults who do not have evidence of airflow restriction (number needed to harm [NNH] = 2).


May 1, 2017 Issue
Citrate Salts for Preventing and Treating Calcium-Containing Kidney Stones in Adults
Citrate supplementation reduces stone size to less than 5 mm and prevents new stone formation when compared with placebo or no intervention. Citrate therapy also stabilizes existing stones and decreases the need for retreatment. These benefits come at the expense of upper gastrointestinal disturbances that lead to a higher dropout rate.


Apr 1, 2017 Issue
Effects of Altered Dietary Salt Intake in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Reducing salt intake lowers blood pressure and reduces proteinuria in patients with CKD, but there is no evidence to determine whether lowering salt consumption leads to clinically significant reductions in end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular events, or all-cause mortality.


Apr 1, 2017 Issue
Preventing Unintended Adolescent Pregnancy
Among adolescents, educational interventions increase reported condom use at most recent intercourse, whereas contraceptive-promoting interventions increase use of hormonal contraception.


Mar 1, 2017 Issue
Radioactive Iodine Therapy vs. Antithyroid Medications for Graves Disease
Radioactive iodine therapy and antithyroid medications produce similar health-related quality-of-life outcomes in patients with Graves disease. Radioactive iodine therapy is an appropriate choice for patients who prefer definitive treatment.


Feb 1, 2017 Issue
The Effect of Statins on Dementia and Cognitive Decline
Statins given in later life to patients at risk of vascular disease do not prevent dementia or cognitive decline compared with placebo. Adverse effects are similar between groups.


Feb 1, 2017 Issue
Interventions for Preventing Falls Among Older Adults Living in the Community
Structured exercise programs and home safety interventions reduce both the rate and the risk of falling among community-dwelling adults 65 years and older, whereas multifactorial assessment and intervention programs reduce the rate of falls but not the risk of falling. Vitamin D supplementation does not reduce the rate of falls or risk of falling in all patients. Education about fall prevention does not significantly reduce the rate or risk of falling.


Jan 1, 2017 Issue
Extended-Release Bupropion for Preventing Seasonal Affective Disorder in Adults
When started in the fall, extended-release bupropion, 300 mg once daily, is effective in preventing recurrent symptoms in high-risk adults with a history of SAD (number needed to treat [NNT] = 5), as well as those at lower risk (NNT = 8). Headaches, nausea, and insomnia may limit adherence to treatment.


Jan 1, 2017 Issue
Interventions to Facilitate Shared Decision Making to Address Antibiotic Use for Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Primary Care
Interventions to facilitate shared decision making reduce the prescribing of antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections in the short term (within six weeks of the consultation) without increasing return visits or decreasing patient satisfaction (number needed to treat [NNT] = 6).


Dec 1, 2016 Issue
Impact of Exercise-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation
Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation reduces cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization. There is no evidence that it reduces the rates of total mortality, myocardial infarctions, coronary artery bypass grafts, or percutaneous coronary interventions.


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