Cochrane for Clinicians

These are summaries of reviews from the Cochrane Library.

Feb 1, 2016 Issue
Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation
Electronic cigarettes with nicotine increase smoking cessation rates compared with placebo, with effectiveness similar to that of nicotine patches. In addition, more patients using electronic cigarettes with nicotine were able to halve their use of cigarettes than those using placebo electronic cigarettes or nicotine patches. Long-term safety is unknown.

Feb 1, 2016 Issue
Quinine for Leg Cramps
Quinine is moderately effective in decreasing the frequency and intensity of muscle cramps, but it is also associated with an increase in minor adverse effects. In addition, there is a risk of rare but serious adverse effects.

Jan 1, 2016 Issue
Therapist-Supported Online Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Adult Anxiety
Therapist-supported online CBT is more effective than no treatment and as effective as face-to-face CBT for reducing overall anxiety as well as symptoms, and improving quality of life in adults with anxiety disorders.

Dec 1, 2015 Issue
Psychological Interventions for Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms
Psychological therapy, specifically cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), has been shown to reduce the severity of medically unexplained physical symptoms in patients with somatoform disorders. The effect is small to moderate in magnitude, but in these studies CBT was as acceptable as usual care to patients.

Dec 1, 2015 Issue
Chewing Gum for Postoperative Recovery of Gastrointestinal Function
Having patients chew gum reduces the time to first flatus and time to first bowel movement, as well as the length of hospitalization by about half a day.

Nov 1, 2015 Issue
Interventions Aimed at Increasing Childhood Vaccination Rates
Community discussions, community meetings, and information campaigns may increase immunization uptake in areas with only moderate vaccine use. There is no clear evidence to guide face-to-face educational interventions, and the impact of face-to-face interventions is uncertain in areas where immunization use is already relatively high.

Nov 1, 2015 Issue
Exercise for Osteoarthritis of the Knee
Land-based exercise programs reduce knee pain and improve quality of life and physical function following treatment in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Oct 1, 2015 Issue
Calcium Supplementation for Preventing Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy
High-dose calcium supplementation (i.e., at least 1,000 mg per day) during pregnancy reduces the risk of developing hypertension and preeclampsia. The most significant risk reduction occurs in women at risk of hypertensive disorders and those with low-calcium diets.

Oct 1, 2015 Issue
Point-of-Care C-Reactive Protein Testing to Help Guide Treatment of Acute Respiratory Infections
Point-of-care C-reactive protein (CRP) testing used as an adjunct to a physician's clinical examination can modestly reduce antibiotic use. Measurement of CRP to guide antibiotic prescription does not appear to affect the duration of illness or recovery, although one study suggests that it increases the risk of hospitalization.

Sep 1, 2015 Issue
Tricyclic Antidepressants for the Treatment of ADHD in Children and Adolescents
TCAs, specifically desipramine and nortriptyline (Pamelor), are superior to placebo at reducing ADHD symptoms in the short term (two to six weeks); however, the quality of evidence is low. Increased heart rate and diastolic blood pressure may be noted with treatment.

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