ITEMS IN AFP WITH KEYWORD:

Breast Disorders

May 1, 2017 Issue
Severe Male Breast Enlargement [Photo Quiz]

An 11-year-old boy presents with grade 3 gynecomastia, with sagging breasts and darkened areolas.


May 15, 2016 Issue
Breast Pain [Clinical Evidence Handbook]

What are the effects of treatments for breast pain?


Aug 15, 2012 Issue
Common Breast Problems [Article]

A palpable mass, mastalgia, and nipple discharge are common breast symptoms for which patients seek medical attention. Patients should be evaluated initially with a detailed clinical history and physical examination. Most women presenting with a breast mass will require imaging and further workup to...


Jun 1, 2012 Issue
Evaluation and Management of Galactorrhea [Article]

Galactorrhea is commonly caused by hyperprolactinemia, especially when it is associated with amenorrhea. Hyperprolactinemia is most often induced by medication or associated with pituitary adenomas or other sellar or suprasellar lesions. Less common causes of galactorrhea include hypothyroidism, ren...


Apr 1, 2012 Issue
Gynecomastia [Article]

Gynecomastia is defined as benign proliferation of glandular breast tissue in men. Physiologic gynecomastia is common in newborns, adolescents, and older men. It is self-limited, but can be treated to minimize emotional distress and physical discomfort. Nonphysiologic gynecomastia may be caused by c...


Sep 15, 2008 Issue
Management of Mastitis in Breastfeeding Women [Article]

Mastitis occurs in approximately 10 percent of U.S. mothers who are breastfeeding, and it can lead to the cessation of breastfeeding. The risk of mastitis can be reduced by frequent, complete emptying of the breast and by optimizing breastfeeding technique. Sore nipples can precipitate mastitis. The...


May 1, 2005 Issue
Evaluation of Palpable Breast Masses [Article]

Palpable breast masses are common and usually benign, but efficient evaluation and prompt diagnosis are necessary to rule out malignancy. A thorough clinical breast examination, imaging, and tissue sampling are needed for a definitive diagnosis. Fine-needle aspiration is fast, inexpensive, and accur...


Aug 1, 2004 Issue
Diagnosis and Management of Galactorrhea [Article]

After infancy, galactorrhea usually is medication-induced. The most common pathologic cause of galactorrhea is a pituitary tumor. Other causes include hypothalamic and pituitary stalk lesions, neurogenic stimulation, thyroid disorders, and chronic renal failure. Patients with the latter conditions m...


Nov 15, 2003 Issue
Breast Cyst Aspiration [Article]

The breast mass is a clinical problem commonly encountered by family physicians. Fine-needle and core biopsy techniques require training and cytopathologist support. In contrast, breast cyst aspiration using a 21- or 22-gauge needle is a simple, cost-effective, minimally invasive procedure. The tech...


May 1, 2001 Issue
Evaluation and Treatment of Galactorrhea [Article]

Galactorrhea, or inappropriate lactation, is a relatively common problem that occurs in approximately 20 to 25 percent of women. Lactation requires the presence of estrogen, progesterone and, most importantly, prolactin. Stress, suckling, sleep, sexual intercourse and medications may increase prolac...


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