Items in AFP with MESH term: Accidents, Traffic
Blunt Trauma in Pregnancy - Article
ABSTRACT: Trauma is the most common cause of nonobstetric death among pregnant women in the United States. Motor vehicle crashes, domestic violence, and falls are the most common causes of blunt trauma during pregnancy. All pregnant patients with traumatic injury should be assessed formally in a medical setting because placental abruption can have dire fetal consequences and can present with few or no symptoms. Evaluation and treatment are the same as for nonpregnant patients, except that the uterus should be shifted off the great vessels. After initial stabilization, management includes electronic fetal monitoring, ultrasonography, and laboratory studies. Electronic fetal monitoring currently is the most accurate measure of fetal status after trauma, although the optimal duration of monitoring has not been established. Prevention of trauma through proper seat belt use during pregnancy and recognition of domestic violence during prenatal care is important.
ABSTRACT: Most certification examinations of commercial drivers are simple, and relatively few drivers are disqualified. If these examinations are not done properly, however, the public can be exposed to potentially unqualified drivers. Should an accident occur, the physician who examined the driver may be found liable. In performing driver certification examinations, the physician's primary responsibility is to the public. The Federal Motor Carriers Safety Regulations and supporting documents provide guidelines for the conditions that may be disqualifying and the conditions that may allow only temporary certification until better medical control is achieved. Some medical diagnoses, such as insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus, are automatically disqualifying, no matter how well the disease is controlled. Other conditions may require documented clearance from a specialist before certification is granted.
ABSTRACT: Despite improvements in road conditions, vehicle safety and driver education, over 3 million persons are injured in motor vehicle accidents each year. Many of these persons develop post-traumatic stress symptoms that can become chronic. Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder experience disabling memories and anxiety related to the traumatic event. Early identification of these patients is critical to allow for intervention and prevent greater impairment and restriction. The family physician is in an ideal position to identify, treat or refer patients with traumatic responses to traffic accidents. The physician's awareness of patient characteristics and pre-accident functioning allows him or her to critically evaluate symptoms that may begin to interfere with the resumption of daily activities.
The Older Adult Driver - Article
ABSTRACT: More adults aged 65 and older will be driving in the next few decades. Many older drivers are safe behind the wheel and do not need intensive testing for license renewal. Others, however, have physiologic or cognitive impairments that can affect their mobility and driving safety. When an older patient's driving competency is questioned, a comprehensive, step-by-step assessment is recommended. Many diseases that impair driving ability can be detected and treated effectively by family physicians. Physicians should take an active role in assessing and reducing the risk for injury in a motor vehicle and, when possible, prevent or delay driving cessation in their patients. Referral to other health care professionals, such as an occupational or physical therapist, may be helpful for evaluation and treatment. When an older patient is no longer permitted or able to drive, the physician should counsel the patient about using alternative methods of transportation.
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