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ABSTRACT: Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs when the varicella-zoster virus is reactivated in the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus represents up to one fourth of all cases of herpes zoster. Most patients with herpes zoster ophthalmicus present with a periorbital vesicular rash distributed according to the affected dermatome. A minority of patients may also develop conjunctivitis, keratitis, uveitis, and ocular cranial-nerve palsies. Permanent sequelae of ophthalmic zoster infection may include chronic ocular inflammation, loss of vision, and debilitating pain. Antiviral medications such as acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famcidovir remain the mainstay of therapy and are most effective in preventing ocular involvement when begun within 72 hours after the onset of the rash. Timely diagnosis and management of herpes zoster ophthalmicus. with referral to an ophthalmologist when ophthalmic involvement is present, are critical in limiting visual morbidity.
Erythema Multiforme - Article
ABSTRACT: Erythema multiforme is a skin condition considered to be a hypersensitivity reaction to infections or drugs. It consists of a polymorphous eruption of macules, papules, and characteristic "target" lesions that are symmetrically distributed with a propensity for the distal extremities. There is minimal mucosal involvement. Management involves treating the existing infectious agent or discontinuing the causal drug. Mild cases resolve without sequelae and do not require treatment. Recurrent cases have been prevented with continuous acyclovir. Patients who have no response to acyclovir may have a response to valacyclovir or famcilovir, which have greater oral bioavailability and more convenient dosing. Patients with recurrent erythema multiforme despite suppressive antiviral therapy should be referred to a dermatologist for further treatment.
Bell's Palsy: Diagnosis and Management - Article
ABSTRACT: Bell's palsy is a peripheral palsy of the facial nerve that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. Affected patients develop unilateral facial paralysis over one to three days with forehead involvement and no other neurologic abnormalities. Symptoms typically peak in the first week and then gradually resolve over three weeks to three months. Bell's palsy is more common in patients with diabetes, and although it can affect persons of any age, incidence peaks in the 40s. Bell's palsy has been traditionally defined as idiopathic; however, one possible etiology is infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. Laboratory evaluation, when indicated by history or risk factors, may include testing for diabetes mellitus and Lyme disease. A common short-term complication of Bell's palsy is incomplete eyelid closure with resultant dry eye. A less common long-term complication is permanent facial weakness with muscle contractures. Approximately 70 to 80 percent of patients will recover spontaneously; however, treatment with a seven-day course of acyclovir or valacyclovir and a tapering course of prednisone, initiated within three days of the onset of symptoms, is recommended to reduce the time to full recovery and increase the likelihood of complete recuperation.
Antiviral Agents for Pregnant Women with Genital Herpes - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
Acute Onset Vesicular Rash - Photo Quiz
Antiviral Drugs in Healthy Children - Article
ABSTRACT: Several antiviral agents are available to treat viral illnesses in healthy children. In some children, treatment with acyclovir is an alternative to vaccination for the treatment and prevention of chickenpox. Acyclovir also can be useful in the treatment or prevention of herpes simplex infections in neonates. Ribavirin, once recommended as routine therapy for high-risk infants with respiratory syncytial virus disease, is now reserved for use in selected children. Amantadine and rimantidine are effective against influenza type A and can be used to protect children from influenza, as well as to lessen the duration and severity of illness in those who are already ill.
ABSTRACT: Herpes zoster (commonly referred to as "shingles") and postherpetic neuralgia result from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus acquired during the primary varicella infection, or chickenpox. Whereas varicella is generally a disease of childhood, herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia become more common with increasing age. Factors that decrease immune function, such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chemotherapy, malignancies and chronic corticosteroid use, may also increase the risk of developing herpes zoster. Reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus from dorsal root ganglia is responsible for the classic dermatomal rash and pain that occur with herpes zoster. Burning pain typically precedes the rash by several days and can persist for several months after the rash resolves. With postherpetic neuralgia, a complication of herpes zoster, pain may persist well after resolution of the rash and can be highly debilitating. Herpes zoster is usually treated with orally administered acyclovir. Other antiviral medications include famciclovir and valacyclovir. The antiviral medications are most effective when started within 72 hours after the onset of the rash. The addition of an orally administered corticosteroid can provide modest benefits in reducing the pain of herpes zoster and the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia. Ocular involvement in herpes zoster can lead to rare but serious complications and generally merits referral to an ophthalmologist. Patients with postherpetic neuralgia may require narcotics for adequate pain control. Tricyclic antidepressants or anticonvulsants, often given in low dosages, may help to control neuropathic pain. Capsaicin, lidocaine patches and nerve blocks can also be used in selected patients.
Treatment of HSV Infection in Late Pregnancy - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
Infant with Diaper Rash and White Bumps - Photo Quiz