Items in AFP with MESH term: Adnexal Diseases
ABSTRACT: Adnexal masses are frequently found in both symptomatic and asymptomatic women. In premenopausal women, physiologic follicular cysts and corpus luteum cysts are the most common adnexal masses, but the possibility of ectopic pregnancy must always be considered. Other masses in this age group include endometriomas, polycystic ovaries, tubo-ovarian abscesses and benign neoplasms. Malignant neoplasms are uncommon in younger women but become more frequent with increasing age. In postmenopausal women with adnexal masses, both primary and secondary neoplasms must be considered, along with leiomyomas, ovarian fibromas and other lesions such as diverticular abscesses. Information from the history, physical examination, ultrasound evaluation and selected laboratory tests will enable the physician to find the most likely cause of an adnexal mass. Measurement of serum CA-125 is a useful test for ovarian malignancy in postmenopausal women with pelvic masses. Asymptomatic premenopausal patients with simple ovarian cysts less than 10 cm in diameter can be observed or placed on suppressive therapy with oral contraceptives. Postmenopausal women with simple cysts less than 3 cm in diameter may also be followed, provided the serum CA-125 level is not elevated and the patient has no signs or symptoms suggestive of malignancy.
ACOG Releases Guidelines on Management of Adnexal Masses - Practice Guidelines
ABSTRACT: Adnexal masses represent a spectrum of conditions from gynecologic and nongynecologic sources. They may be benign or malignant. The initial detection and evaluation of an adnexal mass requires a high index of suspicion, a thorough history and physical examination, and careful attention to subtle historical clues. Timely, appropriate laboratory and radiographic studies are required. The most common symptoms reported by women with ovarian cancer are pelvic or abdominal pain; increased abdominal size; bloating; urinary urgency, frequency, or incontinence; early satiety; difficulty eating; and weight loss. These vague symptoms are present for months in up to 93 percent of patients with ovarian cancer. Any of these symptoms occurring daily for more than two weeks, or with failure to respond to appropriate therapy warrant further evaluation. Transvaginal ultrasonography remains the standard for evaluation of adnexal masses. Findings suggestive of malignancy in an adnexal mass include a solid component, thick septations (greater than 2 to 3 mm), bilaterality, Doppler flow to the solid component of the mass, and presence of ascites. Family physicians can manage many nonmalignant adnexal masses; however, prepubescent girls and postmenopausal women with an adnexal mass should be referred to a gynecologist or gynecologic oncologist for further treatment. All women, regardless of menopausal status, should be referred if they have evidence of metastatic disease, ascites, a complex mass, an adnexal mass greater than 10 cm, or any mass that persists longer than 12 weeks.