Items in AFP with MESH term: Adrenergic Agonists
Management of Acute Asthma Exacerbations - Article
ABSTRACT: Asthma exacerbations can be classified as mild, moderate, severe, or life threatening. Criteria for exacerbation severity are based on symptoms and physical examination parameters, as well as lung function and oxygen saturation. In patients with a peak expiratory flow of 50 to 79 percent of their personal best, up to two treatments of two to six inhalations of short-acting beta2 agonists 20 minutes apart followed by a reassessment of peak expiratory flow and symptoms may be safely employed at home. Administration using a hand-held metered-dose inhaler with a spacer device is at least equivalent to nebulized beta2 agonist therapy in children and adults. In the ambulatory and emergency department settings, the goals of treatment are correction of severe hypoxemia, rapid reversal of airflow obstruction, and reduction of the risk of relapse. Multiple doses of inhaled anticholinergic medication combined with beta2 agonists improve lung function and decrease hospitalization in school-age children with severe asthma exacerbations. Intravenous magnesium sulfate has been shown to significantly increase lung function and decrease the necessity of hospitalization in children. The administration of systemic corticosteroids within one hour of emergency department presentation decreases the need for hospitalization, with the most pronounced effect in patients with severe exacerbations. Airway inflammation can persist for days to weeks after an acute attack; therefore, more intensive treatment should be continued after discharge until symptoms and peak expiratory flow return to baseline.
Neonatal Resuscitation: An Update - Article
ABSTRACT: Appropriate resuscitation must be available for each of the more than 4 million infants born annually in the United States. Ninety percent of infants transition safely, and it is up to the physician to assess risk factors, identify the nearly 10 percent of infants who need resuscitation, and respond appropriately. A team or persons trained in neonatal resuscitation should be promptly available to provide resuscitation. The Neonatal Resuscitation Program, which was initiated in 1987 to identify infants at risk of needing resuscitation and provide high-quality resuscitation, underwent major updates in 2006 and 2010. Among the most important changes are to not intervene with endotracheal suctioning in vigorous infants born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid (although endotracheal suctioning may be appropriate in nonvigorous infants); to provide positive pressure ventilation with one of three devices when necessary; to begin resuscitation of term infants using room air or blended oxygen; and to have a pulse oximeter readily available in the delivery room. The updated guidelines also provide indications for chest compressions and for the use of intravenous epinephrine, which is the preferred route of administration, and recommend not to use sodium bicarbonate or naloxone during resuscitation. Other recommendations include confirming endotracheal tube placement using an exhaled carbon dioxide detector; using less than 100 percent oxygen and adequate thermal support to resuscitate preterm infants; and using therapeutic hypothermia for infants born at 36 weeks’ gestation or later with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.