ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Adverse drug events occur in 15 percent or more of older patients presenting to offices, hospitals, and extended care facilities. These events are potentially preventable up to 50 percent of the time. Common serious manifestations include falls, orthostatic hypotension, heart failure, and delirium. The most common causes of death are gastrointestinal or intracranial bleeding and renal failure. Antithrombotic and antidiabetic medications, diuretics, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cause most of the preventable hospital admissions due to adverse drug events. Strategies to reduce the risk of adverse drug events include discontinuing medications, prescribing new medications sparingly, reducing the number of prescribers, and frequently reconciling medications. The Beers, STOPP (screening tool of older persons’ potentially inappropriate prescriptions), and START (screening tool to alert doctors to right treatment) criteria can help identify medications causing adverse drug events. Not all potentially inappropriate medications can be avoided. Clinicians should involve patients in shared decision making and individualize prescribing decisions based on medical, functional, and social conditions; quality of life; and prognosis.
Screening for Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse of Elderly and Vulnerable Adults: Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
Diabetes: Treating Hypertension - Clinical Evidence Handbook
Diagnosis of Urinary Incontinence - Article
ABSTRACT: Urinary incontinence is common, increases in prevalence with age, and affects quality of life for men and women. The initial evaluation occurs in the family physician’s office and generally does not require urologic or gynecologic evaluation. The basic workup is aimed at identifying possible reversible causes. If no reversible cause is identified, then the incontinence is considered chronic. The next step is to determine the type of incontinence (urge, stress, overflow, mixed, or functional) and the urgency with which it should be treated. These determinations are made using a patient questionnaire, such as the 3 Incontinence Questions, an assessment of other medical problems that may contribute to incontinence, a discussion of the effect of symptoms on the patient’s quality of life, a review of the patient’s completed voiding diary, a physical examination, and, if stress incontinence is suspected, a cough stress test. Other components of the evaluation include laboratory tests and measurement of postvoid residual urine volume. If the type of urinary incontinence is still not clear, or if red flags such as hematuria, obstructive symptoms, or recurrent urinary tract infections are present, referral to a urologist or urogynecologist should be considered.
Prevention of Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
Treatments for Urinary Incontinence in Women - Implementing AHRQ Effective Health Care Reviews
ACOG Releases Practice Bulletin on Osteoporosis - Practice Guidelines
A Shiny Red Papule in an Older Person - Photo Quiz
Dyspnea in an Older Patient - Photo Quiz
ABSTRACT: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is atherosclerosis leading to narrowing of the major arteries distal to the aortic arch. The most common presenting symptom is claudication; however, only 10% of patients have classic claudication. Approximately 8 to 12 million Americans have PAD, including 15% to 20% of adults older than 70 years. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) can be used to screen for and diagnose PAD in the primary care setting. An ABI of less than 0.9 is associated with a two- to fourfold increase in relative risk for cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. To improve cardiovascular risk stratification and risk factor modification, the American Diabetes Association recommends ABI screening for patients older than 50 years who have diabetes mellitus, and the American Heart Association recommends screening all patients 65 years and older and those 50 years and older who have a history of diabetes or smoking. Because there is no evidence that screening leads to fewer cardiovascular events or lower all-cause mortality, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against screening for PAD. Management of claudication includes exercise, smoking cessation, statin therapy, and antiplatelet therapy with aspirin or clopidogrel, and possibly cilostazol in patients with no history of heart failure. Surgical revascularization may be considered in patients with lifestyle-limiting claudication symptoms that do not respond to medical therapy.