ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Adverse drug events are common in older patients, particularly in those taking at least five medications, but such events are predictable and often preventable. A rational approach to prescribing in older adults integrates physiologic changes of aging with knowledge of pharmacology. Focusing on specific outcomes, such as the prompt recognition of adverse drug events, allows the family physician to approach prescribing cautiously and confidently. Physicians need to find ways to streamline the medical regimen, such as periodically reviewing all medications in relation to the Beers criteria and avoiding new prescriptions to counteract adverse drug reactions. The incorporation of computerized alerts and a multidisciplinary approach can reduce adverse drug events.
Prescribing for Older Adults: Finding the Balance - Editorials
Diagnosis of Appendicitis: Part II. Laboratory and Imaging Tests - Point-of-Care Guides
Oral Anticoagulants vs. Antiplatelet Therapy - Cochrane for Clinicians
Fracture Prevention in Postmenopausal Women - Clinical Evidence Handbook
The Visually Impaired Patient - Article
ABSTRACT: Blindness or low vision affects more than 3 million Americans 40 years and older, and this number is projected to reach 5.5 million by 2020. In addition to treating a patient's vision loss and comorbid medical issues, physicians must be aware of the physical limitations and social issues associated with vision loss to optimize health and independent living for the visually impaired patient. In the United States, the four most prevalent etiologies of vision loss in persons 40 years and older are age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Exudative macular degeneration is treated with laser therapy, and progression of nonexudative macular degeneration in its advanced stages may be slowed with high-dose antioxidant and zinc regimens. The value of screening for glaucoma is uncertain; management of this condition relies on topical ocular medications. Cataract symptoms include decreased visual acuity, decreased color perception, decreased contrast sensitivity, and glare disability. Lifestyle and environmental interventions can improve function in patients with cataracts, but surgery is commonly performed if the condition worsens. Diabetic retinopathy responds to tight glucose control, and severe cases marked by macular edema are treated with laser photocoagulation. Vision-enhancing devices can help magnify objects, and nonoptical interventions include special filters and enhanced lighting.
ABSTRACT: Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common condition affecting older men. Typical presenting symptoms include urinary hesitancy, weak stream, nocturia, incontinence, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Acute urinary retention, which requires urgent bladder catheterization, is relatively uncommon. Irreversible renal damage is rare. The initial evaluation should assess the frequency and severity of symptoms and the impact of symptoms on the patient's quality of life. The American Urological Association Symptom Index is a validated instrument for the objective assessment of symptom severity. The initial evaluation should also include a digital rectal examination and urinalysis. Men with hematuria should be evaluated for bladder cancer. A palpable nodule or induration of the prostate requires referral for assessment to rule out prostate cancer. For men with mild symptoms, watchful waiting with annual reassessment is appropriate. Over the past decade, numerous medical and surgical interventions have been shown to be effective in relieving symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Alpha blockers improve symptoms relatively quickly. Although 5-alpha reductase inhibitors have a slower onset of action, they may decrease prostate size and alter the disease course. Limited evidence shows that the herbal agents saw palmetto extract, rye grass pollen extract, and pygeum relieve symptoms. Transurethral resection of the prostate often provides permanent relief. Newer laser-based surgical techniques have comparable effectiveness to transurethral resection up to two years after surgery with lower perioperative morbidity. Various outpatient surgical techniques are associated with reduced morbidity, but symptom relief may be less durable.
Predicting Prognoses in Patients with Acute Stroke - Point-of-Care Guides
Geriatric Screening and Preventive Care - Article
ABSTRACT: Preventive health care decisions and recommendations become more complex as the population ages. The leading causes of death (i.e., heart disease, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic lower respiratory disease) among older adults mirror the actual causes of death (i.e., tobacco use, poor diet, and physical inactivity) among persons of all ages. Many aspects of mortality in older adults are modifiable through behavior change. Patients 65 years and older should be counseled on smoking cessation, diets rich in healthy fats, aerobic exercise, and strength training. Other types of preventive care include aspirin therapy; lipid management; and administration of tetanus and diphtheria, pneumococcal, and influenza vaccines. Although cancer is the second leading cause of death in patients 65 years and older, a survival benefit from cancer screening is not seen unless the patient's life expectancy exceeds five years. Therefore, it is best to review life expectancy, functionality, and comorbidities with older patients when making cancer screening recommendations. Other recommended screenings include abdominal aortic aneurysm for men 65 to 75 years of age, breast cancer for women 40 years and older with a life expectancy greater than five years, and colorectal cancer for men and women 50 years and older with a life expectancy greater than five years.
ABSTRACT: Hematuria, symptomatic and incidental, that involves more than three red blood cells per high-power field on two of three properly collected urinalysis specimens warrants some type of imaging to evaluate the upper tracts. Traditionally, excretory urography or the intravenous pyelogram has been the mainstay of the hematuria work-up, but computed tomography urography has more recently been recognized to have significant advantages. Multidetector computed tomography urography, a cross-sectional technique, is less susceptible to overlying bowel gas and more sensitive for detection of small tumors and calculi. Moreover, intravenous-pyelogram-like images can be obtained by using reconstruction techniques. In specific cases, ultrasound examination and magnetic resonance imaging can also be useful, and are particularly helpful in children and pregnant women. Neither modality has the sensitivity of computed tomography for calculi, but small tumors may be visible on magnetic resonance imaging. This article reviews the appropriateness criteria for the various radiologic imaging tests used in the evaluation of hematuria, as proposed by the American College of Radiology.