ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Ambulatory Surgical Procedures
ABSTRACT: Digital mucous cysts are solitary, clear, or flesh-colored nodules that develop on the dorsal digits between the distal interphalangeal joint and the proximal nail fold. There are two types of digital mucous cysts: one type is associated with degenerative changes in the distal interphalangeal joint, and the second type is independent of the joint and arises from metabolic derangement of fibroblasts that produce large quantities of hyaluronic acid. The two types are clinically indistinguishable. The cysts can be asymptomatic, or they can cause pain, tenderness, or deformity of the nail. Aggressive surgical techniques to remove osteophytes from the joint can produce low recurrence rates. Other procedures to eliminate cysts, such as a simple surgical technique, cryosurgical destruction, or repeated needling, can be performed in an office setting.
ABSTRACT: The use of effective analgesia is vital for any office procedure in which pain may be inflicted. The ideal anesthetic achieves 100 percent analgesia in a short period of time, works on intact or nonintact skin without systemic side effects, and invokes neither pain nor toxicity. Because no single agent meets all of these criteria, the physician must choose from the available armamentarium based on the anesthetic properties that are most desired. Infiltrative anesthetics are frequently chosen because of their proven safety record, low cost, ease of storage, widespread availability, and rapid onset of action. Allergy to local injectable anesthetics is rare, and when it occurs it is often secondary to the preservative in multidose vials. Anesthesia can be prolonged with the addition of epinephrine or the use of longer-acting agents. Buffering the local anesthetic with bicarbonate, warming the solution, and injecting slowly can minimize the pain of anesthetic injection. Complications are rare but include central nervous system and cardiovascular toxicity, or extreme vasoconstriction in an end organ, if epinephrine is used.
Perioperative Management of Diabetes - Article
ABSTRACT: Maintaining glycemic and metabolic control is difficult in diabetic patients who are undergoing surgery. The preoperative evaluation of all patients with diabetes should include careful screening for asymptomatic cardiac or renal disease. Frequent self-monitoring of glucose levels is important in the week before surgery so that insulin regimens can be adjusted as needed. Oral agents and long-acting insulin are usually discontinued before surgery, although the newer long-acting insulin analog glargine may be appropriately administered for basal insulin coverage throughout the surgical period. The usual regimen of sliding scale subcutaneous insulin for perioperative glycemic control may be a less preferable method because it can have unreliable absorption and lead to erratic blood glucose levels. Intravenous insulin infusion offers advantages because of the more predictable absorption rates and ability to rapidly titrate insulin delivery up or down to maintain proper glycemic control. Insulin is typically infused at 1 to 2 U per hour and adjusted according to the results of frequent blood glucose checks. A separate infusion of dextrose prevents hypoglycemia. Potassium is usually added to the dextrose infusion at 10 to 20 mEq per L in patients with normal renal function and normal preoperative serum potassium levels. Frequent monitoring of electrolytes and acid-base status is important during the perioperative period, especially in patients with type 1 diabetes because ketoacidosis can develop at modest levels of hyperglycemia.
ABSTRACT: The hand can be anesthetized effectively with blocks of the median, ulnar, or radial nerve. Each digit is supplied by four digital nerves, which can be blocked with injections on each side of the digit. Anterior or posterior ankle blocks can be used for regional anesthesia for the foot. The anterior ankle block, which is used for procedures on the dorsum of the foot, involves blocking the saphenous nerve, and superficial and deep peroneal nerves. The posterior ankle block, which is used to anesthetize the sole of the foot, involves blocking the sural and posterior tibial nerves. Paracervical block is used for procedures on the cervix, such as loop electrocauterization or conization. Dorsal penile block has been the most commonly recommended anesthetic technique for neonatal circumcision. A safe and effective alternative is the application of anesthetic cream over the skin to be circumcised.
Spanning the Global Surgical Package - Getting Paid
ABSTRACT: The development of topical anesthetics has provided the family physician with multiple options in anesthetizing open and intact skin. The combination of tetracaine, adrenaline (epinephrine), and cocaine, better known as TAC, was the first topical agent available for analgesia of lacerations to the face and scalp. Cocaine has been replaced with lidocaine in a newer formulation called LET (lidocaine, epinephrine, and tetracaine). For analgesia to nonintact skin, LET gel is generally preferred over TAC because of its superior safety record and cost-effectiveness. EMLA (eutectic mixture of local anesthetics) is perhaps the most well-known topical anesthetic for use on intact skin. EMLA can be used to anesthetize the skin before intramuscular injections, venipuncture, and simple skin procedures such as curettage or biopsy. To be fully effective, EMLA should be applied at least 90 minutes before the procedure. ELA-Max is a new, rapidly acting topical agent for intact skin that works by way of a liposomal delivery system and is available over the counter. Other delivery vehicles for topical anesthesia currently in development, including iontophoresis and anesthetic patches, may one day give patients and physicians even more flexibility.
Fusiform Excision - Article
Ingrown Toenail Removal - Article
ABSTRACT: Ingrown toenail is a common problem resulting from various etiologies including improperly trimmed nails, hyperhidrosis, and poorly fitting shoes. Patients commonly present with pain in the affected nail but with progression, drainage, infection, and difficulty walking occur. Excision of the lateral nail plate combined with lateral matricectomy is thought to provide the best chance for eradication. The lateral aspect of the nail plate is removed with preservation of the remaining healthy nail plate. Electrocautery ablation is then used to destroy the exposed nail-forming matrix, creating a new lateral nail fold. Complications of the procedure include regrowth of a nail spicule secondary to incomplete matricectomy and postoperative nail bed infection. When performed correctly, the procedure produces the greatest success in the treatment of ingrown nails. Basic soft tissue surgery and electrosurgery experience are prerequisites for learning the technique.
Aesthetic Procedures in Office Practice - Article
ABSTRACT: Since the approval of botulinum toxin, dermal fillers, and lasers for cosmetic use, minimally invasive aesthetic procedures have rapidly become the treatments of choice for age-related facial changes.
ABSTRACT: When choosing an infiltrative anesthetic agent, the type of procedure, the length of time required for anesthesia, and the pharmacodynamics of each medication are important considerations. Distraction techniques and buffering with sodium bicarbonate can be used to decrease the pain associated with injection. Local cutaneous infiltration is the most commonly used anesthetic technique and involves direct injection into the area requiring anesthesia. Field blocks provide anesthesia by circumferentially blocking innervation to the area. Nerve blocks target the innervation to a specific area and are useful on the face and digits. Using easily identifiable landmarks, blockade of the supraorbital, supratrochlear, infraorbital, and mental nerves can provide site-specific anesthesia. Dorsal and palmar or plantar digital nerve blocks can be performed at a variety of locations on the hands and feet.