Items in AFP with MESH term: Analgesics

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Chronic Low Back Pain: Evaluation and Management - Article

ABSTRACT: Chronic low back pain is a common problem in primary care. A history and physical examination should place patients into one of several categories: (1) nonspecific low back pain; (2) back pain associated with radiculopathy or spinal stenosis; (3) back pain referred from a nonspinal source; or (4) back pain associated with another specific spinal cause. For patients who have back pain associated with radiculopathy, spinal stenosis, or another specific spinal cause, magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography may establish the diagnosis and guide management. Because evidence of improved outcomes is lacking, lumbar spine radiography should be delayed for at least one to two months in patients with nonspecific pain. Acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are first-line medications for chronic low back pain. Tramadol, opioids, and other adjunctive medications may benefit some patients who do not respond to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Acupuncture, exercise therapy, multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs, massage, behavior therapy, and spinal manipulation are effective in certain clinical situations. Patients with radicular symptoms may benefit from epidural steroid injections, but studies have produced mixed results. Most patients with chronic low back pain will not benefit from surgery. A surgical evaluation may be considered for select patients with functional disabilities or refractory pain despite multiple nonsurgical treatments.


Upper Respiratory Tract Infection - Clinical Evidence Handbook


Gabapentin for Pain: Balancing Benefit and Harm - Cochrane for Clinicians


Acute Low Back Pain - Clinical Evidence Handbook


Costochondritis: Diagnosis and Treatment - Article

ABSTRACT: Costochondritis, an inflammation of costochondral junctions of ribs or chondrosternal joints of the anterior chest wall, is a common condition seen in patients presenting to the physician's office and emergency department. Palpation of the affected chondrosternal joints of the chest wall elicits tenderness. Although costochondritis is usually self-limited and benign, it should be distinguished from other, more serious causes of chest pain. Coronary artery disease is present in 3 to 6 percent of adult patients with chest pain and chest wall tenderness to palpation. History and physical examination of the chest that document reproducible pain by palpation over the costal cartilages are usually all that is needed to make the diagnosis in children, adolescents, and young adults. Patients older than 35 years, those with a history or risk of coronary artery disease, and any patient with cardiopulmonary symptoms should have an electrocardiograph and possibly a chest radiograph. Consider further testing to rule out cardiac causes if clinically indicated by age or cardiac risk status. Clinical trials of treatment are lacking. Traditional practice is to treat with acetaminophen or anti-inflammatory medications where safe and appropriate, advise patients to avoid activities that produce chest muscle overuse, and provide reassurance.


Fibromyalgia - Article

ABSTRACT: Fibromyalgia is an idiopathic, chronic, nonarticular pain syndrome with generalized tender points. It is a multisystem disease characterized by sleep disturbance, fatigue, headache, morning stiffness, paresthesias, and anxiety. Nearly 2 percent of the general population in the United States suffers from fibromyalgia, with females of middle age being at increased risk. The diagnosis is primarily based on the presence of widespread pain for a period of at least three months and the presence of 11 tender points among 18 specific anatomic sites. There are certain comorbid conditions that overlap with, and also may be confused with, fibromyalgia. Recently there has been improved recognition and understanding of fibromyalgia. Although there are no guidelines for treatment, there is evidence that a multidimensional approach with patient education, cognitive behavior therapy, exercise, physical therapy, and pharmacologic therapy can be effective.


Nonmalignant Chronic Pain: Taking the Time to Treat - Curbside Consultation


Osteoarthritis of the Hip - Clinical Evidence Handbook


ICSI Releases Guideline on Chronic Pain Assessment and Management - Practice Guidelines


Treatment of Acute Migraine Headache - Article

ABSTRACT: Migraine headache is a common and potentially debilitating disorder often treated by family physicians. Before diagnosing migraine, serious intracranial pathology must be ruled out. Treating acute migraine is challenging because of substantial rates of nonresponse to medications and difficulty in predicting individual response to a specific agent or dose. Data comparing different drug classes are relatively scarce. Abortive therapy should be used as early as possible after the onset of symptoms. Effective first-line therapies for mild to moderate migraine are nonprescription nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and combination analgesics containing acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine. Triptans are first-line therapies for moderate to severe migraine, or mild to moderate migraine that has not responded to adequate doses of simple analgesics. Triptans should be avoided in patients with vascular disease, uncontrolled hypertension, or hemiplegic migraine. Intravenous antiemetics, with or without intravenous dihydroergotamine, are effective therapies in an emergency department setting. Dexamethasone may be a useful adjunct to standard therapy in preventing short-term headache recurrence. Intranasal lidocaine may also have a role in relief of acute migraine. Isometheptene-containing compounds and intranasal dihydroergotamine are also reasonable therapeutic options. Medications containing opiates or barbiturates should be avoided for acute migraine. During pregnancy, migraine may be treated with acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (prior to third trimester), or opiates in refractory cases. Acetaminophen, ibuprofen, intranasal sumatriptan, and intranasal zolmitriptan seem to be effective in children and adolescents, although data in these age groups are limited.


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