Items in AFP with MESH term: Analgesics
Guidelines from the American Geriatric Society Target Management of Chronic Pain in Older Persons - Special Medical Reports
Managing Pain in the Dying Patient - Article
ABSTRACT: End-of-life care can be a challenge requiring the full range of a family physician's skills. Significant pain is common but is often undertreated despite available medications and technology. Starting with an appropriate assessment and following recommended guidelines on the use of analgesics, family physicians can achieve successful pain relief in nearly 90 percent of dying patients. Physicians must overcome their own fears about using narcotics and allay similar fears in patients, families and communities. Drugs such as corticosteroids, antidepressants and anticonvulsants can also help to alleviate pain. Anticonvulsants can be especially useful in relieving neuropathic pain. Side effects of pain medications should be anticipated and treated promptly, but good pain control should be maintained. The physical, psychologic, social and spiritual needs of dying patients are best managed with a team approach. Home visits can provide comfort and facilitate the doctor-patient relationship at the end of life.
Treatment of Nonmalignant Chronic Pain - Article
ABSTRACT: Nonmalignant, chronic pain is associated with physical, emotional and financial disability. Recent animal studies have shown that remodeling within the central nervous system causes the physical pathogenesis of chronic pain. This central neural plasticity results in persistent pain after correction of pathology, hyperalgesia, allodynia, and the spread of pain to areas other than those involved with the initial pathology. Patient evaluation and management focus on pain symptoms, functional disabilities, contributory comorbid illnesses, and medication use or overuse. Treatment of chronic pain involves a comprehensive approach using medication and functional rehabilitation. Functional rehabilitation includes patient education, the identification and management of contributing illnesses, the determination of reachable treatment goals and regular reassessment.
ABSTRACT: Herpes zoster (commonly referred to as "shingles") and postherpetic neuralgia result from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus acquired during the primary varicella infection, or chickenpox. Whereas varicella is generally a disease of childhood, herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia become more common with increasing age. Factors that decrease immune function, such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chemotherapy, malignancies and chronic corticosteroid use, may also increase the risk of developing herpes zoster. Reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus from dorsal root ganglia is responsible for the classic dermatomal rash and pain that occur with herpes zoster. Burning pain typically precedes the rash by several days and can persist for several months after the rash resolves. With postherpetic neuralgia, a complication of herpes zoster, pain may persist well after resolution of the rash and can be highly debilitating. Herpes zoster is usually treated with orally administered acyclovir. Other antiviral medications include famciclovir and valacyclovir. The antiviral medications are most effective when started within 72 hours after the onset of the rash. The addition of an orally administered corticosteroid can provide modest benefits in reducing the pain of herpes zoster and the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia. Ocular involvement in herpes zoster can lead to rare but serious complications and generally merits referral to an ophthalmologist. Patients with postherpetic neuralgia may require narcotics for adequate pain control. Tricyclic antidepressants or anticonvulsants, often given in low dosages, may help to control neuropathic pain. Capsaicin, lidocaine patches and nerve blocks can also be used in selected patients.
Guidelines on Migraine: Part 2. General Principles of Drug Therapy - Practice Guidelines
Guidelines on Migraine: Part 3. Recommendations for Individual Drugs - Practice Guidelines
Guidelines on Migraine: Part 4. General Principles of Preventive Therapy - Practice Guidelines
Caffeine as an Analgesic Adjuvant for Acute Pain in Adults - Cochrane for Clinicians
ABSTRACT: Corneal abrasions are commonly encountered in primary care. Patients typically present with a history of trauma and symptoms of foreign body sensation, tearing, and sensitivity to light. History and physical examination should exclude serious causes of eye pain, including penetrating injury, infective keratitis, and corneal ulcers. After fluorescein staining of the cornea, an abrasion will appear yellow under normal light and green in cobalt blue light. Physicians should carefully examine for foreign bodies and remove them, if present. The goals of treatment include pain control, prevention of infection, and healing. Pain relief may be achieved with topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or oral analgesics. Evidence does not support the use of topical cycloplegics for uncomplicated corneal abrasions. Patching is not recommended because it does not improve pain and has the potential to delay healing. Although evidence is lacking, topical antibiotics are commonly prescribed to prevent bacterial superinfection. Contact lens–related abrasions should be treated with antipseudomonal topical antibiotics. Follow-up may not be necessary for patients with small (4 mm or less), uncomplicated abrasions; normal vision; and resolving symptoms. All other patients should be reevaluated in 24 hours. Referral is indicated for any patient with symptoms that do not improve or that worsen, a corneal infiltrate or ulcer, significant vision loss, or a penetrating eye injury.
Analgesics for Osteoarthritis - Implementing AHRQ Effective Health Care Reviews