ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Hemolytic Anemia - Article
ABSTRACT: Hemolysis presents as acute or chronic anemia, reticulocytosis, or jaundice. The diagnosis is established by reticulocytosis, increased unconjugated bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase, decreased haptoglobin, and peripheral blood smear findings. Premature destruction of erythrocytes occurs intravascularly or extravascularly. The etiologies of hemolysis often are categorized as acquired or hereditary. Common acquired causes of hemolytic anemia are autoimmunity, microangiopathy, and infection. Immune-mediated hemolysis, caused by antierythrocyte antibodies, can be secondary to malignancies, autoimmune disorders, drugs, and transfusion reactions. Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia occurs when the red cell membrane is damaged in circulation, leading to intravascular hemolysis and the appearance of schistocytes. Infectious agents such as malaria and babesiosis invade red blood cells. Disorders of red blood cell enzymes, membranes, and hemoglobin cause hereditary hemolytic anemias. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency leads to hemolysis in the presence of oxidative stress. Hereditary spherocytosis is characterized by spherocytes, a family history, and a negative direct antiglobulin test. Sickle cell anemia and thalassemia are hemoglobinopathies characterized by chronic hemolysis.
Normocytic Anemia - Article
ABSTRACT: Anemia is a common problem that is often discovered on routine laboratory tests. Its prevalence increases with age, reaching 44 percent in men older than 85 years. Normocytic anemia is the most frequently encountered type of anemia. Anemia of chronic disease, the most common normocytic anemia, is found in 6 percent of adult patients hospitalized by family physicians. The goals of evaluation and management are to make an accurate and efficient diagnosis, avoid unnecessary testing, correct underlying treatable causes and ameliorate symptoms when necessary. The evaluation begins with a thorough history and a careful physical examination. Basic diagnostic studies include the red blood cell distribution width, corrected reticulocyte index and peripheral blood smear; further testing is guided by the results of these studies. Treatment should be directed at correcting the underlying cause of the anemia. A recent advance in treatment is the use of recombinant human erythropoietin.