Items in AFP with MESH term: Anti-Bacterial Agents

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Diverticular Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment - Article

ABSTRACT: Diverticular disease refers to symptomatic and asymptomatic disease with an underlying pathology of colonic diverticula. Predisposing factors for the formation of diverticula include a low-fiber diet and physical inactivity. Approximately 85 percent of patients with diverticula are believed to remain asymptomatic. Symptomatic disease without inflammation is a diagnosis of exclusion requiring colonoscopy because imaging studies cannot discern the significance of diverticula. Fiber supplementation may prevent progression to symptomatic disease or improve symptoms in patients without inflammation. Computed tomography is recommended for diagnosis when inflammation is present. Antibiotic therapy aimed at anaerobes and gram-negative rods is first-line treatment for diverticulitis. Whether treatment is administered on an inpatient or outpatient basis is determined by the clinical status of the patient and his or her ability to tolerate oral intake. Surgical consultation is indicated for disease that does not respond to medical management or for repeated attacks that may be less likely to respond to medical therapy and have a higher mortality rate. Prompt surgical consultation also should be obtained when there is evidence of abscess formation, fistula formation, obstruction, or free perforation.


Prevention of Meningococcal Disease - Article

ABSTRACT: Invasive disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis has an average annual incidence of one case per 100,000 in the United States. The disease can be rapidly fatal or result in severe neurologic and vascular sequelae despite antibiotic therapy. Antibiotic chemoprophylaxis with rifampin, ciprofloxacin, or ceftriaxone is required for household and other close contacts. Although the majority of cases of meningococcal disease are sporadic, outbreaks can occur, and vaccination of the affected population often is necessary. Serogroup B accounts for the highest incidence of disease in young infants but is not contained in any vaccine licensed in the United States. Adolescents and young adults 15 to 24 years of age have a higher incidence of disease and a higher fatality rate than other populations. Because 70 to 80 percent of these infections in the United States are caused by meningococcal serogroups C, Y, and W-135, which are contained in the tetravalent meningococcal vaccines, they are potentially preventable. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved a meningococcal conjugate vaccine containing serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135. This T-cell-dependent vaccine induces bactericidal antibody production and promotes immunologic memory that should result in a longer duration of immunity. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that this vaccine be given to 11- and 12-year-old adolescents, to adolescents entering high school, and to college freshmen living in dormitories. The vaccine also may be given to persons 11 to 55 years of age who belong to certain high-risk groups.


Complications of Body Piercing - Article

ABSTRACT: The trend of body piercing at sites other than the earlobe has grown in popularity in the past decade. The tongue, lips, nose, eyebrows, nipples, navel, and genitals may be pierced. Complications of body piercing include local and systemic infections, poor cosmesis, and foreign body rejection. Swelling and tooth fracture are common problems after tongue piercing. Minor infections, allergic contact dermatitis, keloid formation, and traumatic tearing may occur after piercing of the earlobe. "High" ear piercing through the ear cartilage is associated with more serious infections and disfigurement. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are advised for treatment of auricular perichondritis because of their antipseudomonal activity. Many complications from piercing are body-site-specific or related to the piercing technique used. Navel, nipple, and genital piercings often have prolonged healing times. Family physicians should be prepared to address complications of body piercing and provide accurate information to patients.


Urinary Tract Infection in Children - Article

ABSTRACT: Up to 7 percent of girls and 2 percent of boys will have a symptomatic, culture-confirmed urinary tract infection by six years of age. Urinary tract infection may be suspected because of urinary symptoms in older children or because of fever, nonspecific symptoms, or failure to thrive in infants. Urine dipstick analysis is useful for ruling out urinary tract infections in cases with low clinical suspicion. However, urine culture is necessary for diagnosis of urinary tract infections in children if there is high clinical suspicion, cloudy urine, or if urine dipstick testing shows positive leukocyte esterase or nitrite activity. Despite current recommendations, routine imaging studies (e.g., renal ultrasonography, voiding cystourethrography, renal scans) do not appear to improve clinical outcomes in uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Oral antibiotics are as effective as parenteral therapy in randomized trials. The optimal duration of antibiotic therapy has not been established, but one-day therapies have been shown to be inferior to longer treatment courses.


Management of Staphylococcus aureus Infections - Article

ABSTRACT: Because of high incidence, morbidity, and antimicrobial resistance, Staphylococcus aureus infections are a growing concern for family physicians. Strains of S. aureus that are resistant to vancomycin are now recognized. Increasing incidence of unrecognized community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections pose a high risk for morbidity and mortality. Although the incidence of complex S. aureus infections is rising, new antimicrobial agents, including daptomycin and linezolid, are available as treatment. S. aureus is a common pathogen in skin, soft-tissue, catheter-related, bone, joint, pulmonary, and central nervous system infections. S. aureus bacteremias are particularly problematic because of the high incidence of associated complicated infections, including infective endocarditis. Adherence to precautions recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, especially handwashing, is suboptimal.


Diagnosis and Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia - Article

ABSTRACT: Patients with community-acquired pneumonia often present with cough, fever, chills, fatigue, dyspnea, rigors, and pleuritic chest pain. When a patient presents with suspected community-acquired pneumonia, the physician should first assess the need for hospitalization using a mortality prediction tool, such as the Pneumonia Severity Index, combined with clinical judgment. Consensus guidelines from several organizations recommend empiric therapy with macrolides, fluoroquinolones, or doxycycline. Patients who are hospitalized should be switched from parenteral antibiotics to oral antibiotics after their symptoms improve, they are afebrile, and they are able to tolerate oral medications. Clinical pathways are important tools to improve care and maximize cost-effectiveness in hospitalized patients.


Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes: Diagnosis and Management - Article

ABSTRACT: Preterm premature rupture of membranes is the rupture of membranes during pregnancy before 37 weeks' gestation. It occurs in 3 percent of pregnancies and is the cause of approximately one third of preterm deliveries. It can lead to significant perinatal morbidity, including respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal sepsis, umbilical cord prolapse, placental abruption, and fetal death. Appropriate evaluation and management are important for improving neonatal outcomes. Speculum examination to determine cervical dilation is preferred because digital examination is associated with a decreased latent period and with the potential for adverse sequelae. Treatment varies depending on gestational age and includes consideration of delivery when rupture of membranes occurs at or after 34 weeks' gestation. Corticosteroids can reduce many neonatal complications, particularly intraventricular hemorrhage and respiratory distress syndrome, and antibiotics are effective for increasing the latency period.


The Challenge of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease - Article

ABSTRACT: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the upper genital tract in women that can include endometritis, parametritis, salpingitis, oophoritis, tubo-ovarian abscess, and peritonitis. The spectrum of disease ranges from subclinical, asymptomatic infection to severe, life-threatening illness; sequelae include chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. PID is diagnosed clinically, with laboratory and imaging studies reserved for patients who have an uncertain diagnosis, are severely ill, or do not respond to initial therapy. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention diagnostic criteria include uterine, adnexal, or cervical motion tenderness with no other obvious cause in women at risk of PID. Empiric treatment should be initiated promptly and must cover Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae; the possibility of fluoroquinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae also should be considered. Hospitalization for initial parenteral therapy is necessary for patients with tubo-ovarian abscess and for those who are pregnant, severely ill, unable to follow a prescribed treatment plan, or unable to tolerate oral antibiotics. Patients also should be hospitalized if a surgical emergency cannot be excluded or if no clinical improvement occurs after three days. Routine screening for asymptomatic chlamydial infection can help prevent PID and its sequelae.


Diagnosis and Treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection - Article

ABSTRACT: Chlamydia trachomatis infection most commonly affects the urogenital tract. In men, the infection usually is symptomatic, with dysuria and a discharge from the penis. Untreated chlamydial infection in men can spread to the epididymis. Most women with chlamydial infection have minimal or no symptoms, but some develop pelvic inflammatory disease. Chlamydial infection in newborns can cause ophthalmia neonatorum. Chlamydial pneumonia can occur at one to three months of age, manifesting as a protracted onset of staccato cough, usually without wheezing or fever. Treatment options for uncomplicated urogenital infections include a single 1-g dose of azithromycin orally, or doxycycline at a dosage of 100 mg orally twice per day for seven days. The recommended treatment during pregnancy is erythromycin base or amoxicillin. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommend screening for chlamydial infection in women at increased risk of infection and in all women younger than 25 years.


Pertussis: A Disease Affecting All Ages - Article

ABSTRACT: Bordetella pertussis is a highly contagious bacterium known to cause pertussis (whooping cough) and is transmitted via airborne droplets. Although childhood vaccination has dramatically reduced reported pertussis cases, the incidence of the disease has increased over the past 20 years, most notably in previously immunized adolescents and adults. Pertussis should be suspected in patients of all ages with cough who meet the clinical criteria for the disease. Diagnostic tests currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for pertussis infection have low sensitivity. Regardless of test results, physicians should treat clinically suspected pertussis with antimicrobials and report cases to their state health department. A 14-day erythromycin regimen has been the treatment of choice; however, shorter-course macrolide antibiotics (e.g., azithromycin, clarithromycin) may be as effective with fewer adverse effects and better adherence to therapy. The recently recommended tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine for adolescents and adults may decrease the incidence of pertussis in infants--the group at the greatest risk of pertussis complications.


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