Items in AFP with MESH term: Anti-Bacterial Agents
Diarrhea in Adults (Acute) - Clinical Evidence Handbook
Management of Cervical Lymphadenitis in Children - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
Procalcitonin-Guided Treatment of Respiratory Tract Infections - Point-of-Care Guides
ABSTRACT: Common signs and symptoms of streptococcal pharyngitis include sore throat, temperature greater than 100.4 degrees F (38 degrees C), tonsillar exudates, and cervical adenopathy. Cough, coryza, and diarrhea are more common with viral pharyngitis. Available diagnostic tests include throat culture and rapid antigen detection testing. Throat culture is considered the diagnostic standard, although the sensitivity and specificity of rapid antigen detection testing have improved significantly. The modified Centor score can be used to help physicians decide which patients need no testing, throat culture/rapid antigen detection testing, or empiric antibiotic therapy. Penicillin (10 days of oral therapy or one injection of intramuscular benzathine penicillin) is the treatment of choice because of cost, narrow spectrum of activity, and effectiveness. Amoxicillin is equally effective and more palatable. Erythromycin and first-generation cephalosporins are options in patients with penicillin allergy. Increased group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS) treatment failure with penicillin has been reported. Although current guidelines recommend first-generation cephalosporins for persons with penicillin allergy, some advocate the use of cephalosporins in all nonallergic patients because of better GABHS eradication and effectiveness against chronic GABHS carriage. Chronic GABHS colonization is common despite appropriate use of antibiotic therapy. Chronic carriers are at low risk of transmitting disease or developing invasive GABHS infections, and there is generally no need to treat carriers. Whether tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy decreases the incidence of GABHS pharyngitis is poorly understood. At this time, the benefits are too small to outweigh the associated costs and surgical risks.
Epididymitis and Orchitis: An Overview - Article
ABSTRACT: Epididymitis and orchitis are commonly seen in the outpatient setting. Men between 14 and 35 years of age are most often affected, and Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the most common pathogens in this age group. In other age groups, coliform bacteria are the primary pathogens. Men with epididymitis and orchitis typically present with a gradual onset of scrotal pain and symptoms of lower urinary tract infection, including fever. This presentation helps differentiate epididymitis and orchitis from testicular torsion, which is a surgical emergency. Typical physical findings include a swollen, tender epididymis or testis located in the normal anatomic position with an intact ipsilateral cremasteric reflex. Laboratory studies, including urethral Gram stain, urinalysis and culture, and polymerase chain reaction assay for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae, help guide therapy. Initial outpatient therapy is empirical and targets the most common pathogens. When C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae are suspected, ceftriaxone and doxycycline are recommended. When coliform bacteria are suspected, ofloxacin or levofloxacin is recommended.
Antibiotics for Acute Maxillary Sinusitis - Cochrane for Clinicians
Acute Otitis Media in Children - Improving Patient Care
ABSTRACT: Boxed warnings, commonly referred to as 'black box' warnings, are issued by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and featured in the labeling of drugs associated with serious adverse reactions. These safety concerns are typically identified through the Adverse Event Reporting System and the Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology, which evaluates postmarket safety findings. The most common type of warning is issued when there is a potentially serious adverse effect that must be carefully weighed against the potential benefit of the drug. Warnings are also issued to draw attention to dosing, monitoring requirements, and potential drug interactions. Boxed warnings have been issued recently for oral sodium phosphate bowel preparations, fluoroquinolone antibiotics, and salmeterol. Despite these highly publicized warnings, all of these medications remain viable treatment options with appropriate patient selection. Ultimately, physicians must decide whether to prescribe drugs with boxed warnings.