ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Depression in Children and Adolescents - Article
ABSTRACT: Depression among children and adolescents is common but frequently unrecognized. It affects 2 percent of prepubertal children and 5 to 8 percent of adolescents. The clinical spectrum of the disease can range from simple sadness to a major depressive or bipolar disorder. Risk factors include a family history of depression and poor school performance. Evaluation should include a complete medical assessment to rule out underlying medical causes. A structured clinical interview and various rating scales such as the Pediatric Symptom Checklist are helpful in determining whether a child or adolescent is depressed. Evidence-based treatment guidelines from the literature are limited. Psychotherapy appears to be useful in most children and adolescents with mild to moderate depression. Tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are medical therapies that have been studied on a limited basis. The latter agents are better tolerated but not necessarily more efficacious. Because the risk of school failure and suicide is quite high in depressed children and adolescents, prompt referral or close collaboration with a mental health professional is often necessary.
ABSTRACT: Grief and depression present similarly in patients who are dying. Conventional symptoms (e.g., frequent crying, weight loss, thoughts of death) used to assess for depression in these patients may be imprecise because these symptoms are also present in preparatory grief and as a part of the normal dying process. Preparatory grief is experienced by virtually all patients who are dying and can be facilitated with psychosocial support and counseling. Ongoing pharmacotherapy is generally not beneficial and may even be harmful to patients who are grieving. Evidence of disturbed self-esteem, hopelessness, an active desire to die and ruminative thoughts about death and suicide are indicative of depression in patients who are dying. Physicians should have a low threshold for treating depression in patients nearing the end of life because depression is associated with tremendous suffering and poor quality of life.
ABSTRACT: Approximately 65 percent of patients with acute myocardial infarction report experiencing symptoms of depression. Major depression is present in 15 to 22 percent of these patients. Depression is an independent risk factor in the development of and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease in otherwise healthy persons. Persons who are depressed and who have pre-existing cardiovascular disease have a 3.5 times greater risk of death than patients who are not depressed and have cardiovascular disease. Physicians can assess patients for depression by using one of several easily administered and scored self-report inventories, including the SIG E CAPS + mood mnemonic. Cognitive-behavior therapy is the preferred psychologic treatment. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants are the recommended pharmacologic treatment because of the relative absence of effects on the cardiovascular system. The combination of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with cognitive-behavior therapy is often the most effective treatment for depression in patients with cardiovascular disease.
ABSTRACT: A number of antidepressants have emerged in the U.S. market in the past two decades. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have become the drugs of choice in the treatment of depression, and they are also effective in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and social phobia. New indications for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors include post-traumatic stress disorder, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Extended-release venlafaxine has recently been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Mirtazapine, which is unrelated to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, is unique in its action--stimulating the release of norepinephrine and serotonin. The choice of antidepressant drug depends on the agent's pharmacologic profile, secondary actions, and tolerability. Sexual dysfunction related to the use of antidepressants may be addressed by reducing the dosage, switching to another agent, or adding another drug to overcome the sexual side effects. Augmentation with lithium or triiodothyronine may be useful in patients who are partially or totally resistant to antidepressant treatment. Finally, tapering antidepressant medication may help to avoid discontinuation syndrome or antidepressant withdrawal.
ABSTRACT: Depression in elderly persons is widespread, often undiagnosed, and usually untreated. The current system of care is fragmented and inadequate, and staff at residential and other facilities often are ill-equipped to recognize and treat patients with depression. Because there is no reliable diagnostic test, a careful clinical evaluation is essential. Depressive illness in later life should be treated with antidepressants that are appropriate for use in geriatric patients. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach, including consideration of electroconvulsive treatment in some cases, is important. The overall long-term prognosis for elderly depressed patients is good.
ABSTRACT: The development of newer classes of antidepressants and second-generation antiepileptic drugs has created unprecedented opportunities for the treatment of chronic pain. These drugs modulate pain transmission by interacting with specific neurotransmitters and ion channels. The actions of antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs differ in neuropathic and non-neuropathic pain, and agents within each medication class have varying degrees of efficacy. Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline, nortriptyline, desipramine) and certain novel antidepressants (i.e., bupropion, venlafaxine, duloxetine) are effective in the treatment of neuropathic pain. The analgesic effect of these drugs is independent of their antidepressant effect and appears strongest in agents with mixed-receptor or predominantly noradrenergic activity, rather than serotoninergic activity. First-generation antiepileptic drugs (i.e., carbamazepine, phenytoin) and second-generation antiepileptic drugs (e.g., gabapentin, pregabalin) are effective in the treatment of neuropathic pain. The efficacy of antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of neuropathic pain is comparable; tolerability also is comparable, but safety and side effect profiles differ. Tricyclic antidepressants are the most cost-effective agents, but second-generation antiepileptic drugs are associated with fewer safety concerns in elderly patients. Tricyclic antidepressants have documented (although limited) efficacy in the treatment of fibromyalgia and chronic low back pain. Recent evidence suggests that duloxetine and pregabalin have modest efficacy in patients with fibromyalgia.
Treatment of Panic Disorder - Article
ABSTRACT: Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia occurs commonly in patients in primary care settings. This article assesses multiple evidence-based reviews of effective treatments for panic disorder. Antidepressant medications successfully reduce the severity of panic symptoms and eliminate panic attacks. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants are equally effective in the treatment of panic disorder. The choice of medication is based on side effect profiles and patient preferences. Strong evidence supports the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy in treating panic disorder. Family physicians who are not trained in cognitive behavior therapy may refer patients with panic disorder to therapists with such training. Cognitive behavior therapy can be used alone or in combination with antidepressants to treat patients with panic disorder. Benzodiazepines are effective in treating panic disorder symptoms, but they are less effective than antidepressants and cognitive behavior therapy.
St. John's Wort - Article
ABSTRACT: St. John's wort has been used to treat a variety of conditions. Several brands are standardized for content of hypericin and hyperforin, which are among the most researched active components of St. John's wort. St. John's wort has been found to be superior to placebo and equivalent to standard antidepressants for the treatment of mild to moderate depression. Studies of St. John's wort for the treatment of major depression have had conflicting results. St. John's wort is generally well tolerated, although it may potentially reduce the effectiveness of several pharmaceutical drugs.
Cognitive Therapy for Depression - Article
ABSTRACT: Cognitive therapy is a treatment process that enables patients to correct false self-beliefs that can lead to negative moods and behaviors. The fundamental assumption is that a thought precedes a mood; therefore, learning to substitute healthy thoughts for negative thoughts will improve a person's mood, self-concept, behavior, and physical state. Studies have shown that cognitive therapy is an effective treatment for depression and is comparable in effectiveness to antidepressants and interpersonal or psychodynamic therapy. The combination of cognitive therapy and antidepressants has been shown to effectively manage severe or chronic depression. Cognitive therapy also has proved beneficial in treating patients who have only a partial response to adequate antidepressant therapy. Good evidence has shown that cognitive therapy reduces relapse rates in patients with depression, and some evidence has shown that cognitive therapy is effective for adolescents with depression.
Vulvodynia: Diagnosis and Management - Article
ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of vulvodynia is made after taking a careful history, ruling out infectious or dermatologic abnormalities, and eliciting pain in response to light pressure on the labia, introitus, or hymenal remnants. Several treatment options have been used, although the evidence for many of these treatments is incomplete. Treatments include oral medications that decrease nerve hypersensitivity (e.g., tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, anticonvulsants), pelvic floor biofeedback, cognitive behavioral therapy, local treatments, and (rarely) surgery. Most women experience substantial improvement when one or more treatments are used.