ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Headache (Chronic Tension-Type) - Clinical Evidence Handbook
St. John's Wort - Article
ABSTRACT: St. John's wort has been used to treat a variety of conditions. Several brands are standardized for content of hypericin and hyperforin, which are among the most researched active components of St. John's wort. St. John's wort has been found to be superior to placebo and equivalent to standard antidepressants for the treatment of mild to moderate depression. Studies of St. John's wort for the treatment of major depression have had conflicting results. St. John's wort is generally well tolerated, although it may potentially reduce the effectiveness of several pharmaceutical drugs.
Treatment-Resistant Depression - Article
ABSTRACT: Up to two thirds of patients with major unipolar depression will not respond to the first medication prescribed. Depression may be considered resistant to treatment when at least two trials with antidepressants from different pharmacologic classes (adequate in dose, duration, and compliance) fail to produce a significant clinical improvement. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of psychotherapy for treatment-resistant depression is limited. A recent high-quality trial found that patients who did not respond to citalopram and who received cognitive behavior therapy (with or without continued citalopram) had similar response and remission rates to those who received other medication regimens. Initial remission rates in that trial were 37 percent, and even after three additional trials of different drugs or cognitive behavior therapy, the cumulative remission rate was only 67 percent. In general, patients who require more treatment steps have higher relapse rates, and fewer than one half of patients achieve sustained remission. No treatment strategy appears to be better than another. Electroconvulsive therapy is effective as short-term therapy of treatment-resistant depression. There is no good-quality evidence that vagal nerve stimulation is an effective treatment for this condition.
Fibromyalgia - Article
ABSTRACT: Fibromyalgia is an idiopathic, chronic, nonarticular pain syndrome with generalized tender points. It is a multisystem disease characterized by sleep disturbance, fatigue, headache, morning stiffness, paresthesias, and anxiety. Nearly 2 percent of the general population in the United States suffers from fibromyalgia, with females of middle age being at increased risk. The diagnosis is primarily based on the presence of widespread pain for a period of at least three months and the presence of 11 tender points among 18 specific anatomic sites. There are certain comorbid conditions that overlap with, and also may be confused with, fibromyalgia. Recently there has been improved recognition and understanding of fibromyalgia. Although there are no guidelines for treatment, there is evidence that a multidimensional approach with patient education, cognitive behavior therapy, exercise, physical therapy, and pharmacologic therapy can be effective.
A Burn That Keeps Hurting - Close-ups
Screening and Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder in Children and Adolescents - Putting Prevention into Practice
ABSTRACT: Diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain affects the functionality, mood, and sleep patterns of approximately 10 to 20 percent of patients with diabetes mellitus. Treatment goals include restoring function and improving pain control. Patients can realistically expect a 30 to 50 percent reduction in discomfort with improved functionality. The main classes of agents used to treat diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain include tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, opiates and opiate-like substances, and topical medications. Physicians should ask patients whether they have tried complementary and alternative medicine therapies for their pain. Only two medications are approved specifically for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain: pregabalin and duloxetine. However, evidence supports the use of other therapies, and unless there are contraindications, tricyclic antidepressants are the first-line treatment. Because patients often have multiple comorbidities, physicians must consider potential adverse effects and possible drug interactions before prescribing a medication.
ABSTRACT: Patients receiving antidepressant monotherapy may be partially or totally resistant to treatment in 10 to 30 percent of cases. In patients who have experienced only partial treatment results, the clinician should first consider optimizing antidepressant dosage or lengthening therapy. Antidepressant drug substitution should generally be reserved for use in patients who haven't responded at all (nonresponders). Combining two or more antidepressants is generally not recommended, as this approach may obscure adequate monotherapy evaluation and lead to significant adverse effects or drug-drug interactions. Use of electroconvulsive therapy is recommended in patients with psychotic and severe refractory depression. Augmentation therapy is often efficacious in patients who exhibit a partial antidepressant response. Lithium and thyroid hormone have been the most extensively studied augmentative agents but, more recently, pindolol and buspirone have also been used for this purpose.
ABSTRACT: Postpartum major depression occurs in approximately one of 10 childbearing women and is considerably underdiagnosed. If left untreated, the disorder can have serious adverse effects on the mother and her relationship with significant others, and on the child's emotional and psychologic development. A simple screening instrument can be used to increase the detection of postpartum major depression. Although few well-controlled studies have been done to support the use of any one modality, the mainstay of treatment has been antidepressant therapy, alone or in combination with psychotherapy. Plasma concentrations of antidepressant drugs are usually low in the breast-fed infant, and most studies demonstrate that certain antidepressants can be used during lactation without any important adverse effects on the infant.