ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic
Is Alarm Intervention Effective in the Treatment of Enuresis? - Cochrane for Clinicians
Optimal Dosage of Tricyclic Antidepressants - Cochrane for Clinicians
Drug Treatments for Patients with Dysthymia - Cochrane for Clinicians
ABSTRACT: Interstitial cystitis is a chronic, severely debilitating disease of the urinary bladder. Excessive urgency and frequency of urination, suprapubic pain, dyspareunia, chronic pelvic pain and negative urine cultures are characteristic of interstitial cystitis. The course of the disease is usually marked by flare-ups and remissions. Other conditions that should be ruled out include bacterial cystitis, urethritis, neoplasia, vaginitis and vulvar vestibulitis. Interstitial cystitis is diagnosed by cystoscopy and hydrodistention of the bladder. Glomerulations or Hunner's ulcers found at cystoscopy are diagnostic. Oral treatments of interstitial cystitis include pentosan polysulfate, tricyclic antidepressants and antihistamines. Intravesicular therapies include hydrodistention, dimethyl sulfoxide and heparin, or a combination of agents. Referral to a support group should be offered to all patients with interstitial cystitis.
Evaluation and Treatment of Enuresis - Article
ABSTRACT: Enuresis is defined as repeated, spontaneous voiding of urine during sleep in a child five years or older. It affects 5 to 7 million children in the United States. Primary nocturnal enuresis is caused by a disparity between bladder capacity and nocturnal urine production and failure of the child to awaken in response to a full bladder. Less commonly, enuresis is secondary to a medical, psychological, or behavioral problem. A diagnosis usually can be made with a history focusing on enuresis and a physical examination followed by urinalysis. Imaging and urodynamic studies generally are not needed unless specifically indicated (e.g., to exclude suspected neurologic or urologic disease). Primary nocturnal enuresis almost always resolves spontaneously over time. Treatment should be delayed until the child is able and willing to adhere to the treatment program; medications are rarely indicated in children younger than seven years. If the condition is not distressing to the child, treatment is not needed. However, parents should be reassured about their child's physical and emotional health and counseled about eliminating guilt, shame, and punishment. Enuresis alarms are effective in children with primary nocturnal enuresis and should be considered for older, motivated children from cooperative families when behavioral measures are unsuccessful. Desmopressin is most effective in children with nocturnal polyuria and normal bladder capacity. Patients respond to desmopressin more quickly than to alarm systems. Combined treatment is effective for resistant cases.
Depression in Children and Adolescents - Clinical Evidence Handbook
Antidepressants for the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain - Cochrane for Clinicians
Treatment-Resistant Depression - Article
ABSTRACT: Up to two thirds of patients with major unipolar depression will not respond to the first medication prescribed. Depression may be considered resistant to treatment when at least two trials with antidepressants from different pharmacologic classes (adequate in dose, duration, and compliance) fail to produce a significant clinical improvement. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of psychotherapy for treatment-resistant depression is limited. A recent high-quality trial found that patients who did not respond to citalopram and who received cognitive behavior therapy (with or without continued citalopram) had similar response and remission rates to those who received other medication regimens. Initial remission rates in that trial were 37 percent, and even after three additional trials of different drugs or cognitive behavior therapy, the cumulative remission rate was only 67 percent. In general, patients who require more treatment steps have higher relapse rates, and fewer than one half of patients achieve sustained remission. No treatment strategy appears to be better than another. Electroconvulsive therapy is effective as short-term therapy of treatment-resistant depression. There is no good-quality evidence that vagal nerve stimulation is an effective treatment for this condition.
Effectiveness of Antidepressants Compared with Placebo for Depression in Primary Care - Cochrane for Clinicians
Mirtazapine: A Newer Antidepressant - Article
ABSTRACT: Mirtazapine is a newer antidepressant that exhibits both noradrenergic and serotonergic activity. It is at least as effective as the older antidepressants for treating mild to severe depression. Sedation is the most common side effect. Although agranulocytosis is the most serious side effect, it is rare (approximately one in 1,000) and usually reversible when the medication is stopped. Mirtazapine is relatively safe in overdose. Many clinicians consider mirtazapine a second-line or even third-line antidepressant to be used when older antidepressants are not tolerated or are ineffective. Physicians who are concerned about the risks of elevated lipid levels and agranulocytosis may choose to reserve mirtazapine as a third-line choice. It is particularly useful in patients who experience sexual side effects from other antidepressants. Mirtazapine is also a good choice in depressed patients with significant anxiety or insomnia. Although mirtazapine has been used successfully in Europe for a number of years, its place in the care of patients with depression in the United States has not yet been established.