Items in AFP with MESH term: Antiemetics
ABSTRACT: Nearly two thirds of patients with cancer will undergo radiation therapy as part of their treatment plan. Given the increased use of radiation therapy and the growing number of cancer survivors, family physicians will increasingly care for patients experiencing adverse effects of radiation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been shown to significantly improve symptoms of depression in patients undergoing chemotherapy, although they have little effect on cancer-related fatigue. Radiation dermatitis is treated with topical steroids and emollient creams. Skin washing with a mild, unscented soap is acceptable. Cardiovascular disease is a well-established adverse effect in patients receiving radiation therapy, although there are no consensus recommendations for cardiovascular screening in this population. Radiation pneumonitis is treated with oral prednisone and pentoxifylline. Radiation esophagitis is treated with dietary modification, proton pump inhibitors, promotility agents, and viscous lidocaine. Radiation-induced emesis is ameliorated with 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists and steroids. Symptomatic treatments for chronic radiation cystitis include anticholinergic agents and phenazopyridine. Sexual dysfunction from radiation therapy includes erectile dysfunction and vaginal stenosis, which are treated with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and vaginal dilators, respectively.
ABSTRACT: Weight loss late in the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease is common and often multifactorial. Increased energy expenditure in response to opportunistic disease, as well as to HIV infection itself, can lead to protein-calorie malnutrition similar to that observed in starvation. Weight loss of as little as 5 percent in patients with HIV infection is associated with an increased risk of disease progression. Loss of body cell mass carries a particularly poor prognosis, and aggressive measures should be taken to stop such depletion. Patients exhibiting unexpected weight loss should be carefully examined to exclude decreased food intake, malabsorption, occult infection or neoplasm as the etiology of the weight loss. Early aggressive treatment of HIV disease and underlying opportunistic pathology, along with adequate pharmacologic, hormonal, nutritional and physical therapy, can often restore normal weight and body composition.
Guidelines on Migraine: Part 3. Recommendations for Individual Drugs - Practice Guidelines
Treatment of Motion Sickness - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries