ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: There are approximately 300,000 survivors of childhood cancer in the United States, and most of them receive their medical care from primary care physicians. Adult survivors of childhood cancer are at considerable risk of long-term morbidity and mortality beyond the recurrence of their primary malignancy. Late adverse effects can impair organ function, stunt growth and development, and cause neurocognitive dysfunction and secondary malignancies. To address the need for systematic, comprehensive care of this expanding high-risk patient population, the Children’s Oncology Group has developed long-term follow-up guidelines. Proper use of these guidelines will allow primary care physicians to understand a patient’s individual risk, provide additional screening as needed, and identify late adverse effects of childhood cancer early. The foundation of the care of an adult survivor of a childhood cancer is a complete, accurate account of the patient’s cancer and subsequent therapy in the form of a Summary of Cancer Treatment. A complete Summary of Cancer Treatment allows a primary care physician to use the longterm follow-up guidelines to create an individualized care plan. This article will review the late adverse effects of childhood cancer therapy and the transition of patients from pediatric oncologists to physicians in adulthood, and explain how primary care physicians can use these tools to provide appropriate care to adult survivors of childhood cancer.
Treatment of Breast Cancer - Article
ABSTRACT: Understanding breast cancer treatment options can help family physicians care for their patients during and after cancer treatment. This article reviews typical treatments based on stage, histology, and biomarkers. Lobular carcinoma in situ does not require treatment. Ductal carcinoma in situ can progress to invasive cancer and is treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy without further lymph node exploration or systemic therapy. Stages I and II breast cancers are usually treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery decreases mortality and recurrence. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is considered for most breast cancers with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes, and it does not have the adverse effects of arm swelling and pain that are associated with axillary lymph node dissection. Choice of adjuvant systemic therapy depends on lymph node involvement, hormone receptor status, ERBB2 (formerly HER2 or HER2/neu) overexpression, and patient age and menopausal status. In general, node-positive breast cancer is treated systemically with chemotherapy, endocrine therapy (for hormone receptor–positive cancer), and trastuzumab (for cancer overexpressing ERBB2). Anthracycline- and taxane-containing chemotherapeutic regimens are active against breast cancer. Stage III breast cancer typically requires induction chemotherapy to downsize the tumor to facilitate breast-conserving surgery. Inflammatory breast cancer, although considered stage III, is aggressive and requires induction chemotherapy followed by mastectomy, rather than breastconserving surgery, as well as axillary lymph node dissection and chest wall radiation. Prognosis is poor in women with recurrent or metastatic (stage IV) breast cancer, and treatment options must balance benefits in length of life and reduced pain against harms from treatment.
ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis is a common, potentially debilitating condition that can compromise quality of life. Its most frequent symptom is pruritus. Attempts to relieve the itch by scratching simply worsen the rash, creating a vicious circle. Treatment should be directed at limiting itching, repairing the skin and decreasing inflammation when necessary. Lubricants, antihistamines and topical corticosteroids are the mainstays of therapy. When required, oral corticosteroids can be used. If pruritus does not respond to treatment, other diagnoses, such as bacterial overgrowth or viral infections, should be considered. Treatment options are available for refractory atopic dermatitis, but these measures should be reserved for use in unique situations and typically require consultation with a dermatologist or an allergist.
Significant FDA Approvals in 1999 - FDA Perspective
American Urological Association Issues Guidelines on the Management of Bladder Cancer - Practice Guidelines
ABSTRACT: Family physicians are regularly faced with identifying, treating, and counseling patients with skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer, which encompasses basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma, is the most common cancer in the United States. Ultraviolet B exposure is a significant factor in the development of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. The use of tanning beds is associated with a 1.5-fold increase in the risk of basal cell carcinoma and a 2.5-fold increase in the risk of squamous cell carcinoma. Routine screening for skin cancer is controversial. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force cites insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine whole-body skin examination to screen for skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma most commonly appears as a pearly white, dome-shaped papule with prominent telangiectatic surface vessels. Squamous cell carcinoma most commonly appears as a firm, smooth, or hyperkeratotic papule or plaque, often with central ulceration. Initial tissue sampling for diagnosis involves a shave technique if the lesion is raised, or a 2- to 4-mm punch biopsy of the most abnormal-appearing area of skin. Mohs micrographic surgery has the lowest recurrence rate among treatments, but is best considered for large, high-risk tumors. Smaller, lower-risk tumors may be treated with surgical excision, electrodesiccation and curettage, or cryotherapy. Topical imiquimod and fluorouracil are also potential, but less supported, treatments. Although there are no clear guidelines for follow-up after an index nonmelanoma skin cancer, monitoring for recurrence is prudent because the risk of subsequent skin cancer is 35 percent at three years and 50 percent at five years.
Enlarging Mass on the Back - Photo Quiz
Management of External Genital Warts - Article
ABSTRACT: Genital warts affect 1% of the sexually active U.S. population and are commonly seen in primary care. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 are responsible for most genital warts. Warts vary from small, flat-topped papules to large, cauliflower-like lesions on the anogenital mucosa and surrounding skin. Diagnosis is clinical, but atypical lesions should be confirmed by histology. Treatments may be applied by patients, or by a clinician in the office. Patient-applied treatments include topical imiquimod, podofilox, and sinecatechins, whereas clinician-applied treatments include podophyllin, bichloroacetic acid, and trichloroacetic acid. Surgical treatments include excision, cryotherapy, and electrosurgery. The quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine is active against virus subtypes that cause genital warts in men and women. Additionally, male circumcision may be effective in decreasing the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus, and herpes simplex virus.