ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ACIP Releases 2002 Guidelines on the Prevention and Control of Influenza - Practice Guidelines
Clinical Briefs - Clinical Briefs
Neuraminidase Inhibitors for Treatment of Influenza - Cochrane for Clinicians
What Is the Best Antiviral Agent for Influenza Infection? - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
Antiviral Agents for Pregnant Women with Genital Herpes - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
Treatment of Herpes Zoster - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
Hepatitis B: Diagnosis and Treatment - Article
ABSTRACT: Although an estimated 1 million persons in the United States are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus, the prevalence of hepatitis B has declined since the implementation of a national vaccination program. Hepatitis B virus is transmitted in blood and secretions. Acute infection may cause nonspecific symptoms, such as fatigue, poor appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, low-grade fever, jaundice, and dark urine; and clinical signs, such as hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Fewer than 5 percent of adults acutely infected with hepatitis B virus progress to chronic infection. The diagnosis of hepatitis B virus infection requires the evaluation of the patient’s blood for hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B surface antibody, and hepatitis B core antibody. The goals of treatment for chronic hepatitis B virus infection are to reduce inflammation of the liver and to prevent complications by suppressing viral replication. Treatment options include pegylated interferon alfa-2a administered subcutaneously or oral antiviral agents (nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors). Persons with chronic hepatitis B virus infection should be monitored for disease activity with liver enzyme tests and hepatitis B virus DNA levels; considered for liver biopsy; and entered into a surveillance program for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatitis C: Diagnosis and Treatment - Article
ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C, a common chronic bloodborne infection, is found in approximately 2 percent of adults in the United States. Chronic infection is associated with serious morbidity and mortality (e.g., cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma). Testing for hepatitis C is recommended for at-risk populations, and confirmatory testing includes quantification of virus by polymerase chain reaction. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine screening for hepatitis C virus infection in asymptomatic adults who are not at increased risk of infection (general population). It found insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine screening in adults at high risk of infection. Current therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus includes pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Therapy is based on factors that predict sustained virologic response, and the goal of therapy is to slow or halt progression of fibrosis and prevent the development of cirrhosis. In the future, multidrug regimens in combination with current therapies may be developed. Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection should be advised to abstain from alcohol use. Currently, there is no vaccine available to prevent hepatitis C virus infection; however, persons infected with hepatitis C virus should be vaccinated for hepatitis A and B. The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases recommends ultrasound surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma in persons with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and cirrhosis.