Items in AFP with MESH term: Antiviral Agents

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Adult Immunization-Influenza Vaccine - Putting Prevention into Practice


ACIP Issues Recommendations for the 2000-2001 Influenza Season - Practice Guidelines


Treatment of Nongenital Cutaneous Warts - Article

ABSTRACT: Numerous treatments for nongenital cutaneous warts are available, although no single therapy has been established as completely curative. Watchful waiting is an option for new warts because many resolve spontaneously. However, patients often request treatment because of social stigma or discomfort. Ideally, treatment should be simple and inexpensive with low risk of adverse effects. Salicylic acid has the best evidence to support its effectiveness, but it is slow to work and requires frequent application for up to 12 weeks. Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen is a favorable option for many patients, with cure rates of 50 to 70 percent after three or four treatments. For recalcitrant warts, Candida or mumps skin antigen can be injected into the wart every three to four weeks for up to three treatments. More expensive treatments for recalcitrant warts are offered in many dermatology offices. Photodynamic therapy with aminolevulinic acid has the best evidence of effectiveness compared with pulsed dye laser, intralesional bleomycin, and surgical removal using curettage or cautery.


Bubbles on the Skin Following Renal Transplant - Photo Quiz


Treatment of HSV Infection in Late Pregnancy - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries


PIDS and IDSA Issue Management Guidelines for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Young Children - Practice Guidelines


Evaluation of Fever in Infants and Young Children - Article

ABSTRACT: Febrile illness in children younger than 36 months is common and has potentially serious consequences. With the widespread use of immunizations against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b, the epidemiology of bacterial infections causing fever has changed. Although an extensive diagnostic evaluation is still recommended for neonates, lumbar puncture and chest radiography are no longer recommended for older children with fever but no other indications. With an increase in the incidence of urinary tract infections in children, urine testing is important in those with unexplained fever. Signs of a serious bacterial infection include cyanosis, poor peripheral circulation, petechial rash, and inconsolability. Parental and physician concern have also been validated as indications of serious illness. Rapid testing for influenza and other viruses may help reduce the need for more invasive studies. Hospitalization and antibiotics are encouraged for infants and young children who are thought to have a serious bacterial infection. Suggested empiric antibiotics include ampicillin and gentamicin for neonates; ceftriaxone and cefotaxime for young infants; and cefixime, amoxicillin, or azithromycin for older infants.


Postexposure Prophylaxis for Common Infectious Diseases - Article

ABSTRACT: Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is effective in preventing illness after potential or documented exposure to a variety of microbial pathogens and in reducing the risk of secondary spread of infection. Guidelines have been published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for proper use of PEP for bloodborne pathogens, for microorganisms transmitted by either airborne or droplet spread or through direct contact, and for infections acquired after traumatic injuries. Depending on the type of exposure, different forms of PEP are available, including vaccines, immune globulins, antibiotics, and antiviral medications. Physicians should assess a patient’s potential need for PEP based on several factors, including the type of exposure, the timing and severity of illness in the source patient, the exposed person’s susceptibility to infectious diseases of concern, and the relative risks and benefits of the PEP regimen in an individual situation. Immunity to certain infectious diseases can be ensured with prior infection or vaccination, and by serologic testing in patients with a negative or uncertain history. PEP should be given to persons exposed to index cases of pertussis and invasive meningococcal infection regardless of immunization history, and should be given following rabies and tetanus exposure regardless of the length of delay. In general, PEP should be given as soon as possible following a high-risk exposure. Persons exposed to bloodborne pathogens should have baseline testing for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus antibodies, and follow-up testing at six weeks, three months, and six months postexposure.


IDSA Updates Guideline for Managing Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis - Practice Guidelines


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