Items in AFP with MESH term: Arterial Occlusive Diseases
Management of Peripheral Aterial Disease - Article
ABSTRACT: Peripheral arterial disease is common, but the diagnosis frequently is overlooked because of subtle physical findings and lack of classic symptoms. Screening based on the ankle brachial index using Doppler ultrasonography may be more useful than physical examination alone. Noninvasive modalities to locate lesions include magnetic resonance angiography, duplex scanning, and hemodynamic localization. Major risk factors for peripheral arterial disease are cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, older age (older than 40 years), hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperhomocystinemia. Nonsurgical therapy for intermittent claudication involves risk-factor modification, exercise, and pharmacologic therapy. Based on available evidence, a supervised exercise program is the most effective treatment. All patients with peripheral arterial disease should undergo aggressive control of blood pressure, sugar intake, and lipid levels. All available strategies to help patients quit smoking, such as counseling and nicotine replacement, should be used. Effective drug therapies for peripheral arterial disease include aspirin (with or without dipyridamole), clopidogrel, cilostazol, and pentoxifylline.
ABSTRACT: Peripheral arterial occlusive disease occurs in about 18 percent of persons over 70 years of age. Usually, patients who have this disease present with intermittent claudication with pain in the calf, thigh or buttock that is elicited by exertion and relieved with a few minutes of rest. The disease may also present in a subacute or acute fashion. Symptoms of ischemic rest pain, ulceration or gangrene may be present at the most advanced stage of the disease. In most cases, the underlying etiology is atherosclerotic disease of the arteries. In caring for these patients, the primary care physician should focus on evaluation, risk factor modification and exercise. The physician should consider referral to a vascular subspecialist when symptoms progress or are severe. While the prognosis for the affected limb is quite good, patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease are at increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Therefore, treatment measures should address overall vascular health.
Screening for Peripheral Arterial Disease - Putting Prevention into Practice