ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, is a common consequence of collisions, falls and other forms of contact in sports. Concussion may be defined as an acute trauma-induced alteration of mental function lasting fewer than 24 hours, with or without preceding loss of consciousness. The physician's responsibilities in assessing an athlete with concussion include determining the need for emergency intervention and offering guidance about the athlete's ability to return to play. Concussion may be complicated by cerebral edema related to the second impact syndrome, cumulative neuropsychologic deficits, intracranial bleeding or the postconcussion syndrome. The risk of complications is increased in athletes who prematurely return to play and in those with prolonged loss of consciousness or post-traumatic amnesia. An athlete with prolonged loss of consciousness or signs and symptoms that worsen or persist after a concussion should be evaluated in the emergency department. An athlete should not be allowed to resume sports participation until all symptoms of a concussion have resolved.
Groin Injuries in Athletes - Article
ABSTRACT: Groin injuries comprise 2 to 5 percent of all sports injuries. Early diagnosis and proper treatment are important to prevent these injuries from becoming chronic and potentially career-limiting. Adductor strains and osteitis pubis are the most common musculoskeletal causes of groin pain in athletes. These two conditions are often difficult to distinguish. Other etiologies of groin pain include sports hernia, groin disruption, iliopsoas bursitis, stress fractures, avulsion fractures, nerve compression and snapping hip syndrome.
ABSTRACT: Sports have become increasingly popular and account for numerous eye injuries each year. The sports that most commonly cause eye injuries, in order of decreasing frequency, are basketball, water sports, baseball, and racquet sports. Sports are classified as low risk, high risk, and very high risk. Sports-related eye injuries are blunt, penetrating, and radiation injuries. The use of eye protection has helped to reduce the number and severity of eye injuries. The American Society for Testing and Materials has established performance standards for selected eyewear. Consultation with an eye care professional is recommended for fitting protective eyewear. The functionally one-eyed, or monocular, athlete should take extra precautions. A preparticipation eye examination is helpful in identifying persons who may be at increased risk for eye injury. Sports-related eye injuries should be evaluated on site with an adequate examination of the eye and adnexa. Minor eye injuries may be treated on site. The team physician must know which injuries require immediate referral to an ophthalmologist and the guidelines for returning an athlete to competition.
Tarsal Navicular Stress Fractures - Article
ABSTRACT: Stress fractures of the tarsal navicular bone are being recognized with increasing frequency in physically active persons. Diagnosis is commonly delayed, and outcome often suffers because physicians lack familiarity with the condition. Navicular stress fractures typically present in a running athlete who has gradually increasing pain in the dorsal mid-foot with occasional radiation of pain down the medial arch. Because initial plain films are often normal, the next diagnostic test of choice is triple-phase bone scan, which is positive early in the process and localizes the lesion well. After a positive bone scan, a computed tomographic scan should be obtained to provide anatomic detail and guide therapy. Nondisplaced, noncomminuted fractures respond well to six weeks of non-weight-bearing cast immobilization. Displacement, comminution, and delayed or nonunion fractures are indications for surgical open reduction internal fixation.
Health Issues for Surfers - Article
ABSTRACT: Surfers are prone to acute injuries as well as conditions resulting from chronic environmental exposure. Sprains, lacerations, strains, and fractures are the most common types of trauma. Injury from the rider's own surfboard may be the prevailing mechanism. Minor wound infections can be treated on an outpatient basis with ciprofloxacin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Jellyfish stings are common and may be treated with heat application. Other treatment regimens have had mixed results. Seabather's eruption is a pruritic skin reaction caused by exposure to nematocyst-containing coelenterate larvae. Additional surfing hazards include stingrays, coral reefs, and, occasionally, sharks. Otologic sequelae of surfing include auditory exostoses, tympanic membrane rupture, and otitis externa. Sun exposure and skin cancer risk are inherent dangers of this sport.
ABSTRACT: Youth sports participation carries an inherent risk of injury, including overuse injuries. Little leaguer's shoulder, a stress fracture of the proximal humerus that presents as lateral shoulder pain, usually is self-limited. Little leaguer's elbow is a medial stress injury; treatment consists of complete rest from throwing for four to six weeks followed by rehabilitation and a gradual throwing program. Spondylolysis is a stress fracture of the pars interarticularis. Diagnostic modalities include plain film radiography, bone scan, computed tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment usually is conservative. Spondylolisthesis is the forward or anterior displacement of one vertebral body over another and may be related to a history of spondylolysis. Diagnosis is made with plain film radiography and graded according to the amount of displacement. Osgood-Schlatter disease presents as anterior knee pain localized to the tibial tubercle. Diagnosis is made clinically, and most patients respond to conservative measures. Calcaneal apophysitis (or Sever's disease) is a common cause of heel pain in young athletes, presenting as pain in the posterior aspect of the calcaneus.
ABSTRACT: Injuries to the head and neck are common in sports. Sideline physicians must be attentive and prepared with an organized approach to detect and manage these injuries. Because head and neck injuries often occur simultaneously, the sideline physician can combine the head and neck evaluations. When assessing a conscious athlete, the physician initially evaluates the neck for spinal cord injury and determines whether the athlete can be moved safely to the sideline for further evaluation. This decision is made using an on-field assessment of the athlete's peripheral sensation and strength, as well as neck tenderness and range of motion. If these evaluations are normal, axial loading and Spurling testing can be performed. Once the neck has been determined to be normal, the athlete can be assisted to the sideline for assessment of concussion symptoms and severity. This assessment should include evaluations of the athlete's reported symptoms, recently acquired memory, and postural stability. Injured athletes should be monitored with serial examinations, and those with severe, prolonged, or progressive findings require transport to an emergency department for further evaluation.
Common Problems in Endurance Athletes - Article
ABSTRACT: Endurance athletes alternate periods of intensive physical training with periods of rest and recovery to improve performance. An imbalance caused by overly intensive training and inadequate recovery leads to a breakdown in tissue reparative mechanisms and eventually to overuse injuries. Tendon overuse injury is degenerative rather than inflammatory. Tendinopathy is often slow to resolve and responds inconsistently to anti-inflammatory agents. Common overuse injuries in runners and other endurance athletes include patellofemoral pain syndrome, iliotibial band friction syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, and lower extremity stress fractures. These injuries are treated with relative rest, usually accompanied by a rehabilitative exercise program. Cyclists may benefit from evaluation on their bicycles and subsequent adjustment of seat height, cycling position, or pedal system. Endurance athletes also are susceptible to exercise-associated medical conditions, including exercise-induced asthma, exercise-associated collapse, and overtraining syndrome. These conditions are treatable or preventable with appropriate medical intervention. Dilutional hyponatremia is increasingly encountered in athletes participating in marathons and triathlons. This condition is related to overhydration with hypotonic fluids and may be preventable with guidance on appropriate fluid intake during competition.
ABSTRACT: Exercise is beneficial for women of all ages and is associated with long-term health benefits and enhanced well-being. Nevertheless, active women and girls are at risk for conditions resulting from sports and exercise participation. Because of their unique physiology, children are more susceptible to heat illness than adolescents and younger adults. Childhood sports injuries tend to involve the growth plate. Adolescents share some concerns with child athletes but have injuries more similar to those that occur in adults, especially ligament and tendon injuries. Adolescents and adult women are at risk for anterior cruciate ligament injuries, patellofemoral pain syndrome, and stress fractures. For athletes in these age groups, physicians should screen for pelvic floor dysfunction and the female athlete triad, especially in patients with a history of stress fractures. In adult women, exercise can contribute to disease prevention and management. Continuation of an appropriate exercise routine helps older women maintain independence and prevent falls.
ABSTRACT: Peripheral nerve injury of the upper extremity commonly occurs in patients who participate in recreational (e.g., sports) and occupational activities. Nerve injury should be considered when a patient experiences pain, weakness, or paresthesias in the absence of a known bone, soft tissue, or vascular injury. The onset of symptoms may be acute or insidious. Nerve injury may mimic other common musculoskeletal disorders. For example, aching lateral elbow pain may be a symptom of lateral epicondylitis or radial tunnel syndrome; patients who have shoulder pain and weakness with overhead elevation may have a rotator cuff tear or a suprascapular nerve injury; and pain in the forearm that worsens with repetitive pronation activities may be from carpal tunnel syndrome or pronator syndrome. Specific history features are important, such as the type of activity that aggravates symptoms and the temporal relation of symptoms to activity (e.g., is there pain in the shoulder and neck every time the patient is hammering a nail, or just when hammering nails overhead?). Plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging are usually not necessary for initial evaluation of a suspected nerve injury. When pain or weakness is refractory to conservative therapy, further evaluation (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, electrodiagnostic testing) or surgical referral should be considered. Recovery of nerve function is more likely with a mild injury and a shorter duration of compression. Recovery is faster if the repetitive activities that exacerbate the injury can be decreased or ceased. Initial treatment for many nerve injuries is nonsurgical.