Items in AFP with MESH term: Bacterial Vaccines
ABSTRACT: Neonatal group B streptococcal infection is the primary cause of neonatal morbidity related to infection. It can often be prevented by identifying and treating pregnant women who carry group B streptococci or who are at highest risk of transmitting the bacteria to newborns. Increasing evidence and expert opinion support intrapartum treatment of women at relatively high risk of delivering an infant with group B streptococcal infection. Such women can be identified through the use of an anogenital culture for group B streptococci obtained at 35 to 37 weeks of gestation and by the presence of at least one of many risk factors associated with neonatal infection. These risk factors include preterm labor or rupture of the membranes at less than 37 weeks of gestation, previous delivery of an infant with invasive group B streptococcal disease, group B streptococcal bacteriuria during the present pregnancy, maternal intrapartum fever of 38 degrees C (100.4 degrees F) or higher and rupture of the fetal membranes for 18 hours or more. The recommended agent for intrapartum chemoprophylaxis is intravenous penicillin G; clindamycin is used in penicillin-allergic women. The use of risk markers alone to guide the administration of intrapartum antibiotics is much more cost-effective than other preventive strategies, but it exposes more women and infants to antibiotic-associated risks. Management of the infants of treated mothers is empiric and is currently guided by expert opinion.
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