Items in AFP with MESH term: Bandages
Management of Corneal Abrasions - Article
ABSTRACT: Corneal abrasions result from cutting, scratching, or abrading the thin, protective, clear coat of the exposed anterior portion of the ocular epithelium. These injuries cause pain, tearing, photophobia, foreign body sensation, and a gritty feeling. Symptoms can be worsened by exposure to light, blinking, and rubbing the injured surface against the inside of the eyelid. Visualizing the cornea under cobalt-blue filtered light after the application of fluorescein can confirm the diagnosis. Most corneal abrasions heal in 24 to 72 hours and rarely progress to corneal erosion or infection. Although eye patching traditionally has been recommended in the treatment of corneal abrasions, multiple well-designed studies show that patching does not help and may hinder healing. Topical mydriatics also are not beneficial. Initial treatment should be symptomatic, consisting of foreign body removal and analgesia with topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or oral analgesics; topical antibiotics also may be used. Corneal abrasions can be avoided through the use of protective eyewear.
ABSTRACT: A pressure ulcer is a localized injury to the skin or underlying tissue, usually over a bony prominence, as a result of unrelieved pressure. Predisposing factors are classified as intrinsic (e.g., limited mobility, poor nutrition, comorbidities, aging skin) or extrinsic (e.g., pressure, friction, shear, moisture). Prevention includes identifying at-risk persons and implementing specific prevention measures, such as following a patient repositioning schedule; keeping the head of the bed at the lowest safe elevation to prevent shear; using pressure-reducing surfaces; and assessing nutrition and providing supplementation, if needed. When an ulcer occurs, documentation of each ulcer (i.e., size, location, eschar and granulation tissue, exudate, odor, sinus tracts, undermining, and infection) and appropriate staging (I through IV) are essential to the wound assessment. Treatment involves management of local and distant infections, removal of necrotic tissue, maintenance of a moist environment for wound healing, and possibly surgery. Debridement is indicated when necrotic tissue is present. Urgent sharp debridement should be performed if advancing cellulitis or sepsis occurs. Mechanical, enzymatic, and autolytic debridement methods are nonurgent treatments. Wound cleansing, preferably with normal saline and appropriate dressings, is a mainstay of treatment for clean ulcers and after debridement. Bacterial load can be managed with cleansing. Topical antibiotics should be considered if there is no improvement in healing after 14 days. Systemic antibiotics are used in patients with advancing cellulitis, osteomyelitis, or systemic infection.
Principles of Casting and Splinting - Article
ABSTRACT: The ability to properly apply casts and splints is a technical skill easily mastered with practice and an understanding of basic principles. The initial approach to casting and splinting requires a thorough assessment of the injured extremity for proper diagnosis. Once the need for immobilization is ascertained, casting and splinting start with application of stockinette, followed by padding. Splinting involves subsequent application of a noncircumferential support held in place by an elastic bandage. Splints are faster and easier to apply; allow for the natural swelling that occurs during the acute inflammatory phase of an injury; are easily removed for inspection of the injury site; and are often the preferred tool for immobilization in the acute care setting. Disadvantages of splinting include lack of patient compliance and increased motion at the injury site. Casting involves circumferential application of plaster or fiberglass. As such, casts provide superior immobilization, but they are more technically difficult to apply and less forgiving during the acute inflammatory stage; they also carry a higher risk of complications. Compartment syndrome, thermal injuries, pressure sores, skin infection and dermatitis, and joint stiffness are possible complications of splinting and casting. Patient education regarding swelling, signs of vascular compromise, and recommendations for follow-up is crucial after cast or splint application.
Thromboembolism - Clinical Evidence Handbook
Patching for Corneal Abrasions? - Cochrane for Clinicians
Effectiveness of Dressings for Healing Venous Leg Ulcers - Cochrane for Clinicians
ABSTRACT: Corneal abrasions are commonly encountered in primary care. Patients typically present with a history of trauma and symptoms of foreign body sensation, tearing, and sensitivity to light. History and physical examination should exclude serious causes of eye pain, including penetrating injury, infective keratitis, and corneal ulcers. After fluorescein staining of the cornea, an abrasion will appear yellow under normal light and green in cobalt blue light. Physicians should carefully examine for foreign bodies and remove them, if present. The goals of treatment include pain control, prevention of infection, and healing. Pain relief may be achieved with topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or oral analgesics. Evidence does not support the use of topical cycloplegics for uncomplicated corneal abrasions. Patching is not recommended because it does not improve pain and has the potential to delay healing. Although evidence is lacking, topical antibiotics are commonly prescribed to prevent bacterial superinfection. Contact lens–related abrasions should be treated with antipseudomonal topical antibiotics. Follow-up may not be necessary for patients with small (4 mm or less), uncomplicated abrasions; normal vision; and resolving symptoms. All other patients should be reevaluated in 24 hours. Referral is indicated for any patient with symptoms that do not improve or that worsen, a corneal infiltrate or ulcer, significant vision loss, or a penetrating eye injury.