Items in AFP with MESH term: Biopsy

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Diagnosis and Treatment of Basal Cell and Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Article

ABSTRACT: Family physicians are regularly faced with identifying, treating, and counseling patients with skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer, which encompasses basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma, is the most common cancer in the United States. Ultraviolet B exposure is a significant factor in the development of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. The use of tanning beds is associated with a 1.5-fold increase in the risk of basal cell carcinoma and a 2.5-fold increase in the risk of squamous cell carcinoma. Routine screening for skin cancer is controversial. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force cites insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine whole-body skin examination to screen for skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma most commonly appears as a pearly white, dome-shaped papule with prominent telangiectatic surface vessels. Squamous cell carcinoma most commonly appears as a firm, smooth, or hyperkeratotic papule or plaque, often with central ulceration. Initial tissue sampling for diagnosis involves a shave technique if the lesion is raised, or a 2- to 4-mm punch biopsy of the most abnormal-appearing area of skin. Mohs micrographic surgery has the lowest recurrence rate among treatments, but is best considered for large, high-risk tumors. Smaller, lower-risk tumors may be treated with surgical excision, electrodesiccation and curettage, or cryotherapy. Topical imiquimod and fluorouracil are also potential, but less supported, treatments. Although there are no clear guidelines for follow-up after an index nonmelanoma skin cancer, monitoring for recurrence is prudent because the risk of subsequent skin cancer is 35 percent at three years and 50 percent at five years.


Screening for Cervical Cancer: Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force


Gynecologic Procedures: Colposcopy, Treatments of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia, and Endometrial Assessment - Article

ABSTRACT: Women who have abnormal Papanicolaou test results may undergo colposcopy to determine the biopsy site for histologic evaluation. Traditional grading systems do not accurately assess lesion severity because colposcopic impression alone is unreliable for diagnosis. The likelihood of finding cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher increases when two or more cervical biopsies are performed. Excisional and ablative methods have similar treatment outcomes for the eradication of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. However, diagnostic excisional methods, including loop electrosurgical excision procedure and cold knife conization, are associated with an increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes, such as preterm labor and low birth weight. Methods of endometrial assessment have a high sensitivity for detecting endometrial carcinoma and benign causes of uterine bleeding without unnecessary procedures. Endometrial biopsy can reliably detect carcinoma involving a large portion of the endometrium, but is suboptimal for diagnosing focal lesions. A 3- to 4-mm cutoff for endometrial thickness on transvaginal ultrasonography yields the highest sensitivity to exclude endometrial carcinoma in postmenopausal women. Saline infusion sonohysteroscopy can differentiate globally thickened endometrium amenable to endometrial biopsy from focal abnormalities best assessed by hysteroscopy. Hysteroscopy with directed biopsy is the most sensitive and specific method of diagnosing endometrial carcinoma, other than hysterectomy.


Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Diagnosis and Management - Article

ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver (hepatic steatosis). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is characterized by steatosis, liver cell injury, and inflammation. The mechanism of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is unknown but involves the development of insulin resistance, steatosis, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Screening is not recommended in the general population. The diagnosis is usually made after an incidental discovery of unexplained elevation of liver enzyme levels or when steatosis is noted on imaging (e.g., ultrasonography). Patients are often asymptomatic and the physical examination is often unremarkable. No single laboratory test is diagnostic, but tests of liver function, tests for metabolic syndrome, and tests to exclude other causes of abnormal liver enzyme levels are routinely performed. Imaging studies, such as ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, can assess hepatic fat, measure liver and spleen size, and exclude other diseases. Liver biopsy remains the criterion standard for the diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Noninvasive tests are available and may reduce the need for liver biopsy. A healthy diet, weight loss, and exercise are first-line therapeutic measures to reduce insulin resistance. There is insufficient evidence to support bariatric surgery, metformin, thiazolidinediones, bile acids, or antioxidant supplements for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The long-term prognosis is not associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, cancer, or liver disease.


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