ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Large, Eroded Penile Mass in a Patient with HIV - Photo Quiz
ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver (hepatic steatosis). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is characterized by steatosis, liver cell injury, and inflammation. The mechanism of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is unknown but involves the development of insulin resistance, steatosis, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Screening is not recommended in the general population. The diagnosis is usually made after an incidental discovery of unexplained elevation of liver enzyme levels or when steatosis is noted on imaging (e.g., ultrasonography). Patients are often asymptomatic and the physical examination is often unremarkable. No single laboratory test is diagnostic, but tests of liver function, tests for metabolic syndrome, and tests to exclude other causes of abnormal liver enzyme levels are routinely performed. Imaging studies, such as ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, can assess hepatic fat, measure liver and spleen size, and exclude other diseases. Liver biopsy remains the criterion standard for the diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Noninvasive tests are available and may reduce the need for liver biopsy. A healthy diet, weight loss, and exercise are first-line therapeutic measures to reduce insulin resistance. There is insufficient evidence to support bariatric surgery, metformin, thiazolidinediones, bile acids, or antioxidant supplements for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The long-term prognosis is not associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, cancer, or liver disease.
Screening for Cervical Cancer: Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
Erythematous Papules on the Face - Photo Quiz
ABSTRACT: Women who have abnormal Papanicolaou test results may undergo colposcopy to determine the biopsy site for histologic evaluation. Traditional grading systems do not accurately assess lesion severity because colposcopic impression alone is unreliable for diagnosis. The likelihood of finding cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher increases when two or more cervical biopsies are performed. Excisional and ablative methods have similar treatment outcomes for the eradication of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. However, diagnostic excisional methods, including loop electrosurgical excision procedure and cold knife conization, are associated with an increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes, such as preterm labor and low birth weight. Methods of endometrial assessment have a high sensitivity for detecting endometrial carcinoma and benign causes of uterine bleeding without unnecessary procedures. Endometrial biopsy can reliably detect carcinoma involving a large portion of the endometrium, but is suboptimal for diagnosing focal lesions. A 3- to 4-mm cutoff for endometrial thickness on transvaginal ultrasonography yields the highest sensitivity to exclude endometrial carcinoma in postmenopausal women. Saline infusion sonohysteroscopy can differentiate globally thickened endometrium amenable to endometrial biopsy from focal abnormalities best assessed by hysteroscopy. Hysteroscopy with directed biopsy is the most sensitive and specific method of diagnosing endometrial carcinoma, other than hysterectomy.
Evaluation of Scrotal Masses - Article
ABSTRACT: Scrotal masses are caused by a variety of disorders, ranging from benign conditions to those requiring emergent surgical intervention. Painful scrotal masses require urgent evaluation. Characteristics that suggest testicular torsion include rapid symptom onset, nausea and vomiting, high position of the testicle, and abnormal cremasteric reflex. Doppler ultrasonography or surgical exploration is required to confirm the diagnosis. Surgical repair must occur within six hours of symptom onset to reliably salvage the testicle. Epididymitis/orchitis have a slower onset and are associated with a C-reactive protein level greater than 24 mg per L (228.6 nmol per L) and increased blood flow on ultrasonography. Acute onset of pain with near normal physical examination and ultrasound findings is consistent with torsion of the testicular appendage. Testicular malignancies cause pain in 15% of cases. If ultrasonography shows an intratesticular mass, timely urology referral is indicated. Inguinal hernias are palpated separate to the testicle and can cause pain. Emergent surgery is indicated for a strangulated hernia. Hydrocele, varicocele, and scrotal skin lesions may be managed in nonurgent settings. A biopsy should be performed to rule out cancer in patients with scrotal skin lesions that are erosive, vascular, hyperkeratotic, or nonhealing, or that change color or have irregular borders.
An Acute Vesiculobullous Rash on the Face - Photo Quiz