ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Thyroid Nodules - Article
ABSTRACT: Palpable thyroid nodules occur in 4 to 7 percent of the population, but nodules found incidentally on ultrasonography suggest a prevalence of 19 to 67 percent. The majority of thyroid nodules are asymptomatic. Because about 5 percent of all palpable nodules are found to be malignant, the main objective of evaluating thyroid nodules is to exclude malignancy. Laboratory evaluation, including a thyroid-stimulating hormone test, can help differentiate a thyrotoxic nodule from an euthyroid nodule. In euthyroid patients with a nodule, fine-needle aspiration should be performed, and radionuclide scanning should be reserved for patients with indeterminate cytology or thyrotoxicosis. Insufficient specimens from fine-needle aspiration decrease when ultrasound guidance is used. Surgery is the primary treatment for malignant lesions, and the extent of surgery depends on the extent and type of disease. Ablation by postoperative radioactive iodine is done for high-risk patients--identified as those with metastatic or residual disease. While suppressive therapy with thyroxine is frequently used postoperatively for malignant lesions, its use for management of benign solitary thyroid nodules remains controversial.
ABSTRACT: Surgical treatment of breast cancer has changed significantly in recent years. Fine-needle aspirations or core-needle biopsies can be used in the diagnostic process, thus avoiding scarring incisions. The preferred method of treatment for many women with early breast cancer is conservative surgical therapy (principally lumpectomy and axillary dissection) followed by breast irradiation. Sentinel node biopsy is being investigated as an alternative to standard axillary node dissection. This could decrease morbidity following standard axillary dissection. These techniques allow women with different forms of breast cancer to conserve their breasts. For women who choose mastectomy, immediate reconstruction of the breast is now routinely performed with a prosthetic implant or autologous tissue. Clinical history, physical examination, and breast imaging are the most effective means of follow-up.
Breast Cyst Aspiration - Article
ABSTRACT: The breast mass is a clinical problem commonly encountered by family physicians. Fine-needle and core biopsy techniques require training and cytopathologist support. In contrast, breast cyst aspiration using a 21- or 22-gauge needle is a simple, cost-effective, minimally invasive procedure. The technique is easy to learn and can be practiced on a breast model. Breast cyst aspiration may be attempted in many women who present with a palpable, dominant breast mass. If clear fluid is aspirated and the mass resolves, malignancy is unlikely, and breast cyst is the probable diagnosis. In this situation, reevaluation in four to six weeks is appropriate; if the cyst has not recurred, only routine mammographic surveillance is required. Referral for fine-needle or excisional biopsy is indicated if the aspirate is bloody or extremely tenacious, if no fluid can be aspirated, or if there is residual mass after aspiration. Complications such as local discomfort, bruising, and infection are uncommon.
Pigmented Preauricular Papules - Photo Quiz
Screening for Barrett's Esophagus - Editorials
Endometrial Biopsy - Article
ABSTRACT: Endometrial biopsy is an office procedure that serves as a helpful tool in diagnosing various uterine abnormalities. The technique is fairly easy to learn and may be performed without assistance. The biopsy is obtained through the use of an endometrial suction catheter that is inserted through the cervix into the uterine cavity. Twirling the catheter while moving it in and out of the uterine cavity enhances uptake of uterine tissue, which is aspirated into the catheter and removed. Endometrial biopsy is useful in the work-up of abnormal uterine bleeding, cancer screening, endometrial dating and infertility evaluation. Contraindications to the procedure include pregnancy, acute pelvic inflammatory disease, and acute cervical or vaginal infections. Postoperative infection is rare but may be further prevented through the use of prophylactic antibiotic therapy. Intraoperative and postoperative cramping are frequent side effects.
Evaluation of an Umbilical Lesion - Photo Quiz