ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs when the varicella-zoster virus is reactivated in the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus represents up to one fourth of all cases of herpes zoster. Most patients with herpes zoster ophthalmicus present with a periorbital vesicular rash distributed according to the affected dermatome. A minority of patients may also develop conjunctivitis, keratitis, uveitis, and ocular cranial-nerve palsies. Permanent sequelae of ophthalmic zoster infection may include chronic ocular inflammation, loss of vision, and debilitating pain. Antiviral medications such as acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famcidovir remain the mainstay of therapy and are most effective in preventing ocular involvement when begun within 72 hours after the onset of the rash. Timely diagnosis and management of herpes zoster ophthalmicus. with referral to an ophthalmologist when ophthalmic involvement is present, are critical in limiting visual morbidity.
ABSTRACT: The differential diagnosis of eyelid erythema and edema is broad, ranging from benign, self-limiting dermatoses to malignant tumors and vision-threatening infections. A definitive diagnosis usually can be made on physical examination of the eyelid and a careful evaluation of symptoms and exposures. The finding of a swollen red eyelid often signals cellulitis. Orbital cellulitis is a severe infection presenting with proptosis and ophthalmoplegia; it requires hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics to prevent vision loss. Less serious conditions, such as contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and blepharitis, are more common causes of eyelid erythema and edema. These less serious conditions can often be managed with topical corticosteroids and proper eyelid hygiene. They are differentiated on the basis of such clinical clues as time course, presence or absence of irritative symptoms, scaling, and other skin findings. Discrete lid lesions are also important diagnostic indicators. The finding of vesicles, erosions, or crusting may signal a herpes infection. Benign, self-limited eyelid nodules such as hordeola and chalazia often respond to warm compresses, whereas malignancies require surgical excision.
ABSTRACT: Red eye is the cardinal sign of ocular inflammation. The condition is usually benign and can be managed by primary care physicians. Conjunctivitis is the most common cause of red eye. Other common causes include blepharitis, corneal abrasion, foreign body, subconjunctival hemorrhage, keratitis, iritis, glaucoma, chemical burn, and scleritis. Signs and symptoms of red eye include eye discharge, redness, pain, photophobia, itching, and visual changes. Generally, viral and bacterial conjunctivitis are self-limiting conditions, and serious complications are rare. Because there is no specific diagnostic test to differentiate viral from bacterial conjunctivitis, most cases are treated using broad-spectrum antibiotics. Allergies or irritants also may cause conjunctivitis. The cause of red eye can be diagnosed through a detailed patient history and careful eye examination, and treatment is based on the underlying etiology. Recognizing the need for emergent referral to an ophthalmologist is key in the primary care management of red eye. Referral is necessary when severe pain is not relieved with topical anesthetics; topical steroids are needed; or the patient has vision loss, copious purulent discharge, corneal involvement, traumatic eye injury, recent ocular surgery, distorted pupil, herpes infection, or recurrent infections.