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ABSTRACT: Tight glucose control with intensive therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes (formerly known as juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes) can delay the onset and slow the progression of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Optimal blood glucose control is defined by a target glycosylated hemoglobin level of less than 7 percent, a preprandial glucose level of 80 to 120 mg per dL (4.4 to 6.7 mmol per L) and a bedtime glucose level of 100 to 140 mg per dL (5.6 to 7.8 mmol per L). This article provides guidelines to help family physicians teach patients with type 1 diabetes how to achieve tight glucose control to help minimize complications. Guidelines include maintaining blood glucose levels at near normal by taking doses of short-acting insulin throughout the day supplemented by a nighttime dose of intermediate-acting insulin, monitoring blood glucose levels frequently, following a prudent diet, exercising regularly and effectively managing hypoglycemia, as well as empowering patients to lead their control efforts and rigorously controlling other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Support from physicians, family members and friends is crucial to the success of a regimen of tight glucose control.
ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic and interventional studies have led to lower treatment targets for type 2 diabetes (formerly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes), including a glycosylated hemoglobin level of 7 percent or less and a before-meal blood glucose level of 80 to 120 mg per dL (4.4 to 6.7 mmol per L). New oral medications make these targets easier to achieve, especially in patients with recently diagnosed diabetes. Acarbose, metformin, miglitol, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone and troglitazone help the patient's own insulin control glucose levels and allow early treatment with little risk of hypoglycemia. Two new long-acting sulfonylureas (glimepiride and extended-release glipizide) and a short-acting sulfonylurea-like agent (repaglinide) simply and reliably augment the patient's insulin supply. Combinations of agents have additive therapeutic effects and can restore glucose control when a single agent is no longer successful. Oral therapy for early type 2 diabetes can be relatively inexpensive, and evidence of its cost-effectiveness is accumulating.
ABSTRACT: Evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus focus on three areas: intensive lifestyle intervention that includes at least 150 minutes per week of physical activity, weight loss with an initial goal of 7 percent of baseline weight, and a low-fat, reduced-calorie diet; aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., hypertension, dyslipidemia, and microalbuminuria) with the use of aspirin, statins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; and normalization of blood glucose levels (hemoglobin A1C level less than 7 percent). Insulin resistance, decreased insulin secretion, and increased hepatic glucose output are the hallmarks of type 2 diabetes, and each class of medication targets one or more of these defects. Metformin, which decreases hepatic glucose output and sensitizes peripheral tissues to insulin, has been shown to decrease mortality rates in patients with type 2 diabetes and is considered a first-line agent. Other medications include sulfonylureas and nonsulfonylurea secretagogues, alpha glucosidase inhibitors, and thiazolidinediones. Insulin can be used acutely in patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes to normalize blood glucose, or it can be added to a regimen of oral medication to improve glycemic control. Except in patients taking multiple insulin injections, home monitoring of blood glucose levels has questionable utility, especially in relatively well-controlled patients. Its use should be tailored to the needs of the individual patient.
ABSTRACT: Gestational diabetes occurs in 5 to 9 percent of pregnancies in the United States and is growing in prevalence. It is a controversial entity, with conflicting guidelines and treatment protocols. Recent studies show that diagnosis and management of this disorder have beneficial effects on maternal and neonatal outcomes, including reduced rates of shoulder dystocia, fractures, nerve palsies, and neonatal hypoglycemia. Diagnosis is made using a sequential model of universal screening with a 50-g one-hour glucose challenge test, followed by a diagnostic 100-g three-hour oral glucose tolerance test for women with a positive screening test. Treatment consists of glucose monitoring, dietary modification, exercise, and, when necessary, pharmacotherapy to maintain euglycemia. Insulin therapy is the mainstay of treatment, although glyburide and metformin may become more widely used. In women receiving pharmacotherapy, antenatal testing with nonstress tests and amniotic fluid indices beginning in the third trimester is generally used to monitor fetal well-being. The method and timing of delivery are controversial. Women with gestational diabetes are at high risk of subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle modification should therefore be encouraged, along with regular screening for diabetes.
Glucose Control in Hospitalized Patients - Article
ABSTRACT: Evidence indicates that hospitalized patients with hyperglycemia do not benefit from tight blood glucose control. Maintaining a blood glucose level of less than 180 mg per dL (9.99 mmol per L) will minimize symptoms of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia without adversely affecting patient-oriented health outcomes. In the absence of modifying factors, physicians should continue patients’ at-home diabetes mellitus medications and randomly check glucose levels once daily. Sulfonylureas should be withheld to avoid hypoglycemia in patients with limited caloric intake. Patients with cardiovascular conditions may benefit from temporarily stopping treatment with thiazolidinediones to avoid precipitating heart failure. Metformin should be temporarily withheld in patients who have worsening renal function or who will undergo an imaging study that uses contrast. When patients need to be treated with insulin in the short term, using a long-acting basal insulin combined with a short-acting insulin before meals (with the goal of keeping blood glucose less than 180 mg per dL) better approximates normal physiology and uses fewer nursing resources than sliding-scale insulin approaches. Most studies have found that infusion with glucose, insulin, and potassium does not improve mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction should have moderate control of blood glucose using home regimens or basal insulin with correctional doses.
Screening for Type 2 Diabetes in Adults - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
The Role of Exercise in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - Cochrane for Clinicians