Items in AFP with MESH term: Blood Pressure Determination
Blood Pressure Measurement in Public Places - Editorials
Diagnosing Secondary Hypertension - Article
ABSTRACT: Secondary hypertension is elevated blood pressure that results from an underlying, identifiable, often correctable cause. Only about 5 to 10 percent of hypertension cases are thought to result from secondary causes. The ABCDE mnemonic can be used to help determine a secondary cause of hypertension: Accuracy of diagnosis, obstructive sleep Apnea, Aldosteronism, presence of renal artery Bruits (suggesting renal artery stenosis), renal parenchymal disease (Bad kidneys), excess Catecholamines, Coarctation of the aorta, Cushing's syndrome, Drugs, Diet, excess Erythropoietin, and Endocrine disorders. An algorithm showing the general strategy to help screen for factors involved in secondary hypertension is presented. Routine urinalysis, complete blood cell count, blood chemistry profile (potassium, sodium, creatinine, fasting glucose, fasting lipid levels), and a 12-lead electrocardiogram are recommended for all patients with hypertension.
ABSTRACT: Antihypertensive therapy has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in older patients with elevated systolic or diastolic blood pressures. This benefit appears to persist in patients older than 80 years, but less than one third of older patients have adequate blood pressure control. Systolic blood pressure is the most important predictor of cardiovascular disease. Blood pressure measurement in older persons should include an evaluation for orthostatic hypotension. Low-dose thiazide diuretics remain first-line therapy for older patients. Beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, and calcium channel blockers are second-line medications that should be selected based on comorbidities and risk factors.
Screening for High Blood Pressure - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
Screening for Peripheral Arterial Disease: Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
Outpatient vs. Inpatient Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia - Point-of-Care Guides
ABSTRACT: High blood pressure in children and adolescents is a growing health problem that is often overlooked by physicians. Normal blood pressure values for children and adolescents are based on age, sex, and height, and are available in standardized tables. Prehypertension is defined as a blood pressure in at least the 90th percentile, but less than the 95th percentile, for age, sex, and height, or a measurement of 120/80 mm Hg or greater. Hypertension is defined as blood pressure in the 95th percentile or greater. A secondary etiology of hypertension is much more likely in children than in adults, with renal parenchymal disease and renovascular disease being the most common. Overweight and obesity are strongly correlated with primary hypertension in children. A history and physical examination are needed for all children with newly diagnosed hypertension to help rule out underlying medical disorders. Children with hypertension should also be screened for other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia, and should be evaluated for target organ damage with a retinal examination and echocardiography. Hypertension in children is treated with lifestyle changes, including weight loss for those who are overweight or obese; a healthy, low-sodium diet; regular physical activity; and avoidance of tobacco and alcohol. Children with symptomatic hypertension, secondary hypertension, target organ damage, diabetes, or persistent hypertension despite nonpharmacologic measures should be treated with antihypertensive medications. Thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers are safe, effective, and well tolerated in children.
Diabetes: Treating Hypertension - Clinical Evidence Handbook