ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Breast Cyst Aspiration - Article
ABSTRACT: The breast mass is a clinical problem commonly encountered by family physicians. Fine-needle and core biopsy techniques require training and cytopathologist support. In contrast, breast cyst aspiration using a 21- or 22-gauge needle is a simple, cost-effective, minimally invasive procedure. The technique is easy to learn and can be practiced on a breast model. Breast cyst aspiration may be attempted in many women who present with a palpable, dominant breast mass. If clear fluid is aspirated and the mass resolves, malignancy is unlikely, and breast cyst is the probable diagnosis. In this situation, reevaluation in four to six weeks is appropriate; if the cyst has not recurred, only routine mammographic surveillance is required. Referral for fine-needle or excisional biopsy is indicated if the aspirate is bloody or extremely tenacious, if no fluid can be aspirated, or if there is residual mass after aspiration. Complications such as local discomfort, bruising, and infection are uncommon.
Postpartum Axillary Masses - Photo Quiz
Common Breast Problems - Article
ABSTRACT: A palpable mass, mastalgia, and nipple discharge are common breast symptoms for which patients seek medical attention. Patients should be evaluated initially with a detailed clinical history and physical examination. Most women presenting with a breast mass will require imaging and further workup to exclude cancer. Diagnostic mammography is usually the imaging study of choice, but ultrasonography is more sensitive in women younger than 30 years. Any suspicious mass that is detected on physical examination, mammography, or ultrasonography should be biopsied. Biopsy options include fine-needle aspiration, core needle biopsy, and excisional biopsy. Mastalgia is usually not an indication of underlying malignancy. Oral contraceptives, hormone therapy, psychotropic drugs, and some cardiovascular agents have been associated with mastalgia. Focal breast pain should be evaluated with diagnostic imaging. Targeted ultrasonography can be used alone to evaluate focal breast pain in women younger than 30 years, and as an adjunct to mammography in women 30 years and older. Treatment options include acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The first step in the diagnostic workup for patients with nipple discharge is classification of the discharge as pathologic or physiologic. Nipple discharge is classified as pathologic if it is spontaneous, bloody, unilateral, or associated with a breast mass. Patients with pathologic discharge should be referred to a surgeon. Galactorrhea is the most common cause of physiologic discharge not associated with pregnancy or lactation. Prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels should be checked in patients with galactorrhea.