Items in AFP with MESH term: Breast Neoplasms
ABSTRACT: Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from the loss of ovarian and follicular activity. It usually occurs when women reach their early 50s. Vasomotor symptoms and vaginal dryness are frequently reported during menopause. Estrogen is the most effective treatment for management of hot flashes and night sweats. Local estrogen is preferred for vulvovaginal symptoms because of its excellent therapeutic response. Bone mineral density screening should be performed in all women older than 65 years, and should begin sooner in women with additional risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. Adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D should be encouraged for all postmenopausal women to reduce bone loss. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in women. Postmenopausal women should be counseled regarding lifestyle modification, including smoking cessation and regular physical activity. All women should receive periodic measurement of blood pressure and lipids. Appropriate pharmacotherapy should be initiated when indicated. Women should receive breast cancer screening every one to two years beginning at age 40, as well as colorectal cancer screening beginning at age 50. Women younger than 65 years who are sexually active and have a cervix should receive routine cervical cancer screening with Papanicolaou smear. Recommended immunizations for menopausal women include an annual influenza vaccine, a tetanus and diphtheria toxoid booster every 10 years, and a one-time pneumococcal vaccine after age 65 years.
Assessing Breast Cancer Risk in Women - Article
ABSTRACT: Understanding modifiable and nonmodifiable factors that increase or decrease breast cancer risk allows family physicians to counsel women appropriately. Nonmodifiable factors associated with increased breast cancer risk include advanced age, female sex, family history of breast cancer, increased breast density, genetic predisposition, menarche before age 12 years, and natural menopause after age 45 years. Hormonal factors associated with breast cancer include advanced age at first pregnancy, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, and hormone therapy. Environmental factors include therapeutic radiation. Obesity is also associated with increased rates of breast cancer. Factors associated with decreased cancer rates include pregnancy at an early age, late menarche, early menopause, high parity, and use of some medications, such as selective estrogen receptor modulators and, possibly, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and aspirin. No convincing evidence supports the use of dietary interventions for the prevention of breast cancer, with the exception of limiting alcohol intake.
Exercise for the Management of Cancer-Related Fatigue - Cochrane for Clinicians
NIH Statement on Adjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer - Practice Guidelines
Screening for Breast Cancer: Recommendations and Rationale - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
Screening for Breast Cancer - Putting Prevention into Practice
The Mammography Debate - Editorials
Postmenopausal Hormone Replacement Therapy for the Primary Prevention of Chronic Conditions - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
Should We Offer Routine Breast Cancer Screening with Mammography? - Cochrane for Clinicians