ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Options and Issues in Managing Menopause - Editorials
Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Screening - Article
ABSTRACT: Approximately 180,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed annually, accounting for about 48,000 deaths per year in the United States. The screening guidelines for the diagnosis of breast cancer are continually changing. Because of increased awareness of the signs and symptoms of breast cancer and the use of screening mammograms, breast cancers are increasingly being diagnosed at earlier stages. Annual mammograms and clinical breast examinations are recommended for women older than 40 years. Women older than 20 years should be encouraged to do monthly breast self-examinations, and women between 20 and 39 years of age should have a clinical breast examination every three years. These guidelines are modified for women with risk factors, particularly those with a strong family history of breast cancer. Ultrasonographic studies are most useful to evaluate cystic breast masses. For solid masses, diagnostic biopsy techniques include fine-needle aspiration, core biopsy and excisional biopsy.
Screening for Breast Cancer - Editorials
Generalized Red Rash - Photo Quiz
Screening Mammography for Reducing Breast Cancer Mortality - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
Common Breast Problems - Article
ABSTRACT: A palpable mass, mastalgia, and nipple discharge are common breast symptoms for which patients seek medical attention. Patients should be evaluated initially with a detailed clinical history and physical examination. Most women presenting with a breast mass will require imaging and further workup to exclude cancer. Diagnostic mammography is usually the imaging study of choice, but ultrasonography is more sensitive in women younger than 30 years. Any suspicious mass that is detected on physical examination, mammography, or ultrasonography should be biopsied. Biopsy options include fine-needle aspiration, core needle biopsy, and excisional biopsy. Mastalgia is usually not an indication of underlying malignancy. Oral contraceptives, hormone therapy, psychotropic drugs, and some cardiovascular agents have been associated with mastalgia. Focal breast pain should be evaluated with diagnostic imaging. Targeted ultrasonography can be used alone to evaluate focal breast pain in women younger than 30 years, and as an adjunct to mammography in women 30 years and older. Treatment options include acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The first step in the diagnostic workup for patients with nipple discharge is classification of the discharge as pathologic or physiologic. Nipple discharge is classified as pathologic if it is spontaneous, bloody, unilateral, or associated with a breast mass. Patients with pathologic discharge should be referred to a surgeon. Galactorrhea is the most common cause of physiologic discharge not associated with pregnancy or lactation. Prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels should be checked in patients with galactorrhea.
ACS Releases Updated Guidelines on Cancer Screening - Practice Guidelines
Breast Cancer Screening Update - Article
ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most common non–skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in North American women. Mammography is the only screening test shown to reduce breast cancer–related mortality. There is general agreement that screening should be offered at least biennially to women 50 to 74 years of age. For women 40 to 49 years of age, the risks and benefits of screening should be discussed, and the decision to perform screening should take into consideration the individual patient risk, values, and comfort level of the patient and physician. Information is lacking about the effectiveness of screening in women 75 years and older. The decision to screen women in this age group should be individualized, keeping the patient’s life expectancy, functional status, and goals of care in mind. For women with an estimated lifetime breast cancer risk of more than 20 percent or who have a BRCA mutation, screening should begin at 25 years of age or at the age that is five to 10 years younger than the earliest age that breast cancer was diagnosed in the family. Screening with magnetic resonance imaging may be considered in high-risk women, but its impact on breast cancer mortality is uncertain. Clinical breast examination plus mammography seems to be no more effective than mammography alone at reducing breast cancer mortality. Teaching breast self-examination does not improve mortality and is not recommended; however, women should be aware of any changes in their breasts and report them promptly.
Screening Mammography: The Goal Is Changing - Editorials