Items in AFP with MESH term: Bronchodilator Agents
Tiotropium (Spiriva) for COPD - STEPS
ABSTRACT: Acute bronchitis is one of the top 10 conditions for which patients seek medical care. Physicians show considerable variability in describing the signs and symptoms necessary to its diagnosis. Because acute bronchitis most often has a viral cause, symptomatic treatment with protussives, antitussives, or bronchodilators is appropriate. However, studies indicate that many physicians treat bronchitis with antibiotics. These drugs have generally been shown to be ineffective in patients with uncomplicated acute bronchitis. Furthermore, antibiotics often have detrimental side effects, and their overuse contributes to the increasing problem of antibiotic resistance. Patient satisfaction with the treatment of acute bronchitis is related to the quality of the physician-patient interaction rather than to prescription of an antibiotic.
A Practical Guide to Anaphylaxis - Article
ABSTRACT: Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening reaction with respiratory, cardiovascular, cutaneous, or gastrointestinal manifestations resulting from exposure to an offending agent, usually a food, insect sting, medication, or physical factor. It causes approximately 1,500 deaths in the United States annually. Occasionally, anaphylaxis can be confused with septic or other forms of shock, asthma, airway foreign body, panic attack, or other entities. Urinary and serum histamine levels and plasma tryptase levels drawn after onset of symptoms may assist in diagnosis. Prompt treatment of anaphylaxis is critical, with subcutaneous or intramuscular epinephrine and intravenous fluids remaining the mainstay of management. Adjunctive measures include airway protection, antihistamines, steroids, and beta agonists. Patients taking beta blockers may require additional measures. Patients should be observed for delayed or protracted anaphylaxis and instructed on how to initiate urgent treatment for future episodes.
Childhood Asthma: Treatment Update - Article
ABSTRACT: The prevalence of childhood asthma has risen significantly over the past four decades. A family history of atopic disease is associated with an increased likelihood of developing asthma, and environmental triggers such as tobacco smoke significantly increase the severity of daily asthma symptoms and the frequency of acute exacerbations. The goal of asthma therapy is to control symptoms, optimize lung function, and minimize days lost from school. Acute care of an asthma exacerbation involves the use of inhaled beta2 agonists delivered by a metered-dose inhaler with a spacer, or a nebulizer, supplemented by anticholinergics in more severe exacerbations. The use of systemic and inhaled corticosteroids early in an asthma attack may decrease the rate of hospitalization. Chronic care focuses on controlling asthma by treating the underlying airway inflammation. Inhaled corticosteroids are the agent of choice in preventive care, but leukotriene inhibitors and nedocromil also can be used as prophylactic therapy. Long-acting beta2 agonists may be added to one of the anti-inflammatory medications to improve control of asthma symptoms. Education programs for caregivers and self-management training for children with asthma improve outcomes. Although the control of allergens has not been demonstrated to work as monotherapy, immunotherapy as an adjunct to standard medical therapy can improve asthma control. Sublingual immunotherapy is a newer, more convenient option than injectable immunotherapy, but it requires further study. Omalizumab, a newer medication for prevention and control of moderate to severe asthma, is an expensive option.
ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common problem among patients presenting to primary care. This condition has multiple individual and combined treatment regimens. The goals of treatment are to improve quality of life, exercise tolerance, sleep quality, and survival; and to reduce dyspnea, nocturnal symptoms, exacerbations, use of rescue medications, and hospitalizations. All patients benefit from bronchodilator medications as needed. Long-acting inhaled anticholinergics are probably more beneficial than short-acting formulations. Use of inhaled corticosteroids might benefit patients with mild COPD who have an inflammatory component or significant reversibility on spirometry. Patients with moderate to severe disease benefit from the use of long-acting inhaled anticholinergics, inhaled corticosteroids, and possibly a long-acting beta2 agonist or mucolytics. For rescue therapy, short-acting beta2 agonists or combination anticholinergics with a short-acting beta2 agonist should be used. Inhaled corticosteroids should be considered before initiating a long-acting beta2 agonist. Caution should be used if a long-acting beta2 agonist is discontinued before initiation of an inhaled corticosteroid because this may precipitate exacerbations. Evidence to support the use of mucolytics, oral theophylline, and oral corticosteroids is limited. Patients with severe hypoxemia (i.e., arterial oxygen pressure less than 55 mm Hg or oxygen saturation less than 88 percent) should be given continuous oxygen.
Albuterol vs. Levalbuterol for Asthma Treatment in Children - AFP Journal Club
Should Salmeterol Be Used for Long-Term Asthma Control? - Cochrane for Clinicians
ABSTRACT: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are treated with oxygen (in hypoxemic patients), inhaled beta2 agonists, inhaled anticholinergics, antibiotics and systemic corticosteroids. Methylxanthine therapy may be considered in patients who do not respond to other bronchodilators. Antibiotic therapy is directed at the most common pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Mild to moderate exacerbations of COPD are usually treated with older broad-spectrum antibiotics such as doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium. Treatment with augmented penicillins, fluoroquinolones, third-generation cephalosporins or aminoglycosides may be considered in patients with more severe exacerbations. The management of chronic stable COPD always includes smoking cessation and oxygen therapy. Inhaled beta2 agonists, inhaled anticholinergics and systemic corticosteroids provide short-term benefits in patients with chronic stable disease. Inhaled corticosteroids decrease airway reactivity and reduce the use of health care services for management of respiratory symptoms. Preventing acute exacerbations helps to reduce long-term complications. Long-term oxygen therapy, regular monitoring of pulmonary function and referral for pulmonary rehabilitation are often indicated. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccines should be given. Patients who do not respond to standard therapies may benefit from surgery.
The 'Crashing Asthmatic' - Article
ABSTRACT: Asthma is a common chronic disorder, with a prevalence of 8 to 10 percent in the U.S. population. From 5 to 10 percent of patients have severe disease that does not respond to typical therapeutic interventions. To prevent life-threatening sequelae, it is important to identify patients with severe asthma who will require aggressive management of exacerbations. Objective monitoring of pulmonary status using a peak flow meter is essential in patients with persistent asthma. Patients who have a history of fragmented health care, intubation, or hospitalization for asthma and those with mental illness or psychosocial stressors are at increased risk for severe asthma. Oxygen, beta2 agonists, and systemic corticosteroids are the mainstays of acute asthma therapy. Inhaled anticholinergic medications provide additional bronchodilation. In patients who deteriorate despite usual therapeutic efforts, evidence supports individualized use of parenteral beta2 agonists, magnesium sulfate, aminophylline, leukotriene inhibitors, or positive pressure mask ventilation before intubation.
Tiotropium Effective in Treatment of COPD - Cochrane for Clinicians