Items in AFP with MESH term: Bronchoscopy
ABSTRACT: Growing evidence shows that early detection of cancer can substantially reduce mortality, necessitating screening programs that encourage patient compliance. Radiology is already established as a screening tool, as in mammography for breast cancer and ultrasonography for congenital anomalies. Advanced processing of helical computed tomographic data sets permits three-dimensional and virtual endoscopic models. Such models are noninvasive and require minimal patient preparation, making them ideal for screening. Virtual endoscopy has been used to evaluate the colon, bronchi, stomach, blood vessels, bladder, kidney, larynx, and paranasal sinuses. The most promising role for virtual endoscopy is in screening patients for colorectal cancer. The technique has also been used to evaluate the tracheobronchial tree for bronchogenic carcinoma. Three-dimensional and virtual endoscopy can screen, diagnose, evaluate and assist determination of surgical approach, and provide surveillance of certain malignancies.
ABSTRACT: The first step in the evaluation of patients with pleural effusion is to determine whether the effusion is a transudate or an exudate. An exudative effusion is diagnosed if the patient meets Light's criteria. The serum to pleural fluid protein or albumin gradients may help better categorize the occasional transudate misidentified as an exudate by these criteria. If the patient has a transudative effusion, therapy should be directed toward the underlying heart failure or cirrhosis. If the patient has an exudative effusion, attempts should be made to define the etiology. Pneumonia, cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary embolism account for most exudative effusions. Many pleural fluid tests are useful in the differential diagnosis of exudative effusions. Other tests helpful for diagnosis include helical computed tomography and thoracoscopy.