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ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis affects nearly 28 million elderly Americans. Its major clinical manifestation is fragility fractures of the spine, hip, and distal radius. Low bone mass is the most important risk factor for a fragility fracture. In 1994, the World Health Organization defined osteoporosis on the basis of a bone mineral density that is 2.5 standard deviations below that in peak young normal persons. Three common imaging modalities used to assess bone strength are dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, quantitative computed tomography, and calcaneal ultrasonography. The first two modalities measure bone mineral density in both the lumbar spine and peripheral sites. It is thought that calcaneal ultrasonography measures bone architecture and density. Unlike the other studies, ultrasonography currently cannot be used for monitoring skeletal changes over time or evaluating response to therapy.
ABSTRACT: Most ankle injuries are straightforward ligamentous injuries. However, the clinical presentation of subtle fractures can be similar to that of ankle sprains, and these fractures are frequently missed on initial examination. Fractures of the talar dome may be medial or lateral, and they are usually the result of inversion injuries, although medial injuries may be atraumatic. Lateral talar process fractures are characterized by point tenderness over the lateral process. Posterior talar process fractures are often associated with tenderness to deep palpation anterior to the Achilles tendon over the posterolateral talus, and plantar flexion may exacerbate the pain. These fractures can often be managed nonsurgically with nonweight-bearing status and a short leg cast worn for approximately four weeks. Delays in treatment can result in long-term disability and surgery. Computed tomographic scans or magnetic resonance imaging may be required because these fractures are difficult to detect on plain films.
Diagnosis of Heel Pain - Article
ABSTRACT: Heel pain is a common presenting symptom in ambulatory clinics. There are many causes, but a mechanical etiology is most common. Location of pain can be a guide to the proper diagnosis. The most common diagnosis is plantar fasciitis, a condition that leads to medial plantar heel pain, especially with the first weight-bearing steps in the morning and after long periods of rest. Other causes of plantar heel pain include calcaneal stress fracture (progressively worsening pain following an increase in activity level or change to a harder walking surface), nerve entrapment (pain accompanied by burning, tingling, or numbness), heel pad syndrome (deep, bruise-like pain in the middle of the heel), neuromas, and plantar warts. Achilles tendinopathy is a common condition that causes posterior heel pain. Other tendinopathies demonstrate pain localized to the insertion site of the affected tendon. Posterior heel pain can also be attributed to a Haglund deformity, a prominence of the calcaneus that may cause bursa inflammation between the calcaneus and Achilles tendon, or to Sever disease, a calcaneal apophysitis in children. Medial midfoot heel pain, particularly with continued weight bearing, may be due to tarsal tunnel syndrome, which is caused by compression of the posterior tibial nerve as it courses through the flexor retinaculum, medial calcaneus, posterior talus, and medial malleolus. Sinus tarsi syndrome occurs in the space between the calcaneus, talus, and talocalcaneonavicular and subtalar joints. The syndrome manifests as lateral midfoot heel pain. Differentiating among causes of heel pain can be accomplished through a patient history and physical examination, with appropriate imaging studies, if indicated.