ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Ischemic Attack, Transient
ABSTRACT: Transient ischemic attack is no longer considered a benign event but, rather, a critical harbinger of impending stroke. Failure to quickly recognize and evaluate this warning sign could mean missing an opportunity to prevent permanent disability or death. The 90-day risk of stroke after a transient ischemic attack has been estimated to be approximately 10 percent, with one half of strokes occurring within the first two days of the attack. The 90-day stroke risk is even higher when a transient ischemic attack results from internal carotid artery stenosis. Most patients reporting symptoms of transient ischemic attack should be sent to an emergency department. Patients who arrive at the emergency department within 180 minutes of symptom onset should undergo an expedited history and physical examination, as well as selected laboratory tests, to determine if they are candidates for thrombolytic therapy. Initial testing should include complete blood count with platelet count, prothrombin time, International Normalized Ratio, partial thromboplastin time, and electrolyte and glucose levels. Computed tomographic scanning of the head should be performed immediately to ensure that there is no evidence of brain hemorrhage or mass. A transient ischemic attack can be misdiagnosed as migraine, seizure, peripheral neuropathy, or anxiety.
Senile Dementia of the Binswanger's Type - Article
ABSTRACT: Senile dementia of the Binswanger's type is a term used to describe a dementia syndrome characterized by onset in the sixth or seventh decade of life, subcortical neurologic deficits, psychiatric disorders and evidence of hypertension or systemic vascular disease. The status of senile dementia of the Binswanger's type as a distinct entity is a matter of some controversy. The array of neuroimaging abnormalities and clinical findings attributed to this condition overlap with a number of other neuropathologies. Leukoaraiosis, or attenuation of subcortical white matter, seen on computed tomographic scans or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, is a hallmark of senile dementia of the Binswanger's type. The clinical findings associated with Binswanger's disease are varied but typically include a progressive dementia, depression and "subcortical" dysfunction such as gait abnormalities, rigidity and neurogenic bladder. Treatment is largely supportive and includes a discussion about advanced directives, social support and antidepressant therapy. Control of hypertension and aspirin prophylaxis may help prevent further progression of white matter disease.
ABSTRACT: Stroke is the third most common overall cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability in the United States. New therapeutic interventions instituted in the period immediately after a stroke have revolutionized the approach to ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Recognition of a transient ischemic attack provides an opportunity to prevent a subsequent stroke. Specific stroke prevention treatment depends on the cause of the transient ischemic attack, its cerebrovascular localization and the presence of associated coexisting medical problems. Modification of stroke risk factors is the principal therapeutic approach. Antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants have been shown to be effective in reducing the occurrence of stroke in certain populations. Several well-designed studies have recently demonstrated the effectiveness of carotid endarterectomy in preventing strokes related to extracranial carotid artery disease.
Predicting Short-term Risk of Stroke After TIA - Point-of-Care Guides
ABSTRACT: Risk factors for stroke should be evaluated in patients who have had a transient ischemic attack. Blood pressure, lipid levels, and diabetes mellitus should be controlled. When applicable, smoking cessation and weight loss also are important. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy may help prevent stroke. Aspirin is the treatment of choice for stroke prevention in patients who do not require anticoagulation. Clopidogrel is an alternative therapy in patients who do not tolerate aspirin. Atrial fibrillation, a known cardioembolic source (confirmed thrombus), or a highly suspected cardioembolic source (e.g., recent large myocardial infarction, dilated cardiomyopathy, mechanical valve, rheumatic mitral valve stenosis) are indications for anticoagulation.
American Heart Association Issues Guidelines on Imaging in Transient Ischemic Attacks and Stroke - Special Medical Reports
ABSTRACT: Transient ischemic attack is defined as transient neurologic symptoms without evidence of acute infarction. It is a common and important risk factor for future stroke, but is greatly underreported. Common symptoms are sudden and transient, and include unilateral paresis, speech disturbance, and monocular blindness. Correct and early diagnosis of transient ischemic attack versus mimicking conditions is important because early interventions can significantly reduce risk of future stroke. Nonspecific symptoms and gradual onset are more likely with mimics than with true transient ischemic attacks. Transient ischemic attacks are more likely with sudden onset, focal neurologic deficit, or speech disturbance. Urgent evaluation is necessary in patients with symptoms of transient ischemic attack and includes neuroimaging, cervicocephalic vasculature imaging, cardiac evaluation, blood pressure assessment, and routine laboratory testing. The ABCD2 (age, blood pressure, clinical presentation, diabetes mellitus, duration of symptoms) score should be determined during the initial evaluation and can help assess the immediate risk of repeat ischemia and stroke. Patients with higher ABCD2 scores should be treated as inpatients, whereas those with lower scores are at lower risk of future stroke and can be treated as outpatients.
ABSTRACT: Interventions following a transient ischemic attack are aimed at preventing a future episode or stroke. Hypertension, current smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia are all well-known risk factors, and controlling these factors can have dramatic effects on transient ischemic attack and stroke risk. For patients presenting within 48 hours of resolution of transient ischemic attack symptoms, advantages of hospital admission include rapid diagnostic evaluation and early intervention to reduce the risk of stroke. For long-term prevention of future stroke, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association recommends antiplatelet agents, statins, and carotid artery intervention for advanced stenosis. Aspirin, extended-release dipyridamole/aspirin, and clopidogrel are acceptable first-line antiplatelet agents. Statins have also been shown to reduce the risk of stroke following transient ischemic attack, with maximal benefit occurring with at least a 50 percent reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level or a target of less than 70 mg per dL (1.81 mmol per L). For those with transient ischemic attack and carotid artery stenosis, carotid endarterectomy is recommended if stenosis is 70 to 99 percent, and perioperative morbidity and mortality are estimated to be less than 6 percent.