Items in AFP with MESH term: Child Development
Outpatient Care of the Premature Infant - Article
ABSTRACT: An increasing number of infants in the United States are born prematurely, with current statistics estimating about 13 percent of all births. Although survival rates and outcomes for premature infants have dramatically improved in recent decades, morbidity and mortality are still significant. Infants born prematurely are at increased risk of growth problems, developmental delays, and complex medical problems. To account for prematurity, growth and development monitoring should be done according to adjusted age (age in months from term due date). Premature infants should gain 20 to 30 g (0.71 to 1.06 oz) per day after discharge from the hospital. Growth parameters may be improved in the short term with the use of enriched preterm formula or breast milk fortifier. Each well-child examination should include developmental surveillance so that early intervention can be initiated if a developmental delay is diagnosed. Routine vaccination should proceed according to chronologic age with minor exceptions, and respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin is indicated in preterm infants who meet the criteria.
Toilet Training - Article
ABSTRACT: Toilet training is a developmental task that impacts families with small children. All healthy children are eventually toilet trained, and most complete the task without medical intervention. Most research on toilet training is descriptive, although some is evidence based. In the United States, the average age at which training begins has increased over the past four decades from earlier than 18 months of age to between 21 and 36 months of age. Newer studies suggest no benefit of intensive training before 27 months of age. Mastery of the developmental skills required for toilet training occurs after 24 months of age. Girls usually complete training earlier than boys. Numerous toilet-training methods are available. The Brazelton child-oriented approach uses physiologic maturity, ability to understand and respond to external feedback, and internal motivation to assess readiness. Dr. Spock's toilet-training approach is another popular method used by parents. The American Academy of Pediatrics incorporates components of the child-oriented approach into its guidelines for toilet training. "Toilet training in a day," a method by Azrin and Foxx, emphasizes operant conditioning and teaches specific toileting components. Because each family and child are unique, recommendations about the ideal time or optimal method must be customized. Family physicians should provide guidance about toilet-training methods and identify children who have difficulty reaching developmental milestones.
Combined Oral Contraceptives for Mothers Who Are Breastfeeding - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
ABSTRACT: Sexual behaviors in children are common, occurring in 42 to 73 percent of children by the time they reach 13 years of age. Developmentally appropriate behavior that is common and frequently observed in children includes trying to view another person’s genitals or breasts, standing too close to other persons, and touching their own genitals. Sexual behaviors become less common, less frequent, or more covert after five years of age. Sexual behavior problems are defined as developmentally inappropriate or intrusive sexual acts that typically involve coercion or distress. Such behaviors should be evaluated within the context of other emotional and behavior disorders, socialization difficulties, and family dysfunction, including violence, abuse, and neglect. Although many children with sexual behavior prob- lems have a history of sexual abuse, most children who have been sexually abused do not develop sexual behavior prob- lems. Children who have been sexually abused at a younger age, who have been abused by a family member, or whose abuse involved penetration are at greater risk of developing sexual behavior problems. Although age-appropriate behaviors are managed primarily through reassurance and education of the parent about appropriate behavior redi- rection, sexual behavior problems often require further assessment and may necessitate a referral to child protec- tive services for suspected abuse or neglect.