Items in AFP with MESH term: Cholesterol
ABSTRACT: Coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in women, is largely preventable. Lifestyle modifications (e.g., diet and exercise) are the cornerstone of primary and secondary prevention. Elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are significant risk factors for coronary heart disease. Abundant data show inadequate utilization of lipid-lowering therapy in women. Even when women are given lipid-lowering agents, target levels often are not achieved. Recent guidelines from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology encourage a more aggressive approach to lipid lowering in women. The National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III also supports this strategy and significantly expands the number of women who qualify for intervention.
Management of Dyslipidemia in Adults - Article
ABSTRACT: The importance of treating dyslipidemias based on cardiovascular risk factors is highlighted by the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines. The first step in evaluation is to exclude secondary causes of hyperlipidemia. Assessment of the patient's risk for coronary heart disease helps determine which treatment should be initiated and how often lipid analysis should be performed. For primary prevention of coronary heart disease, the treatment goal is to achieve a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level of less than 160 mg per dL (4.15 mmol per L) in patients with only one risk factor. The target LDL level in patients with two or more risk factors is 130 mg per dL (3.35 mmol per L) or less. For patients with documented coronary heart disease, the LDL cholesterol level should be reduced to less than 100 mg per dL (2.60 mmol per L). A step II diet, in which the total fat content is less than 30 percent of total calories and saturated fat is 8 to 10 percent of total calories, may help reduce LDL cholesterol levels to the target range in some patients. A high-fiber diet is also therapeutic. The most commonly used options for pharmacologic treatment of dyslipidemia include bile acid-binding resins, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, nicotinic acid and fibric acid derivatives. Other possibilities in selected cases are estrogen replacement therapy, plasmapheresis and even surgery in severe, refractory cases.
ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence clearly shows that atherosclerosis begins in youth. The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) has recommended that children at high risk of developing coronary artery disease as adults be screened so that those with elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels can be treated, primarily by modification of diet. The initial approach to these youthful patients is to use the NCEP step I diet. This diet provides calories and nutrients that support normal growth and development, but limits saturated fat and total fat intake to no more than 10 and 30 percent of total calories, respectively, and cholesterol intake to no more than 100 mg per 1,000 kcal per day, to a maximum of 300 mg. If the goal of reducing the LDL cholesterol level to below 130 mg per dL (3.35 mmol per L) is not achieved, the more restrictive step II diet should be initiated. However, the step II diet may not provide sufficient calories and nutrients to support normal growth and development; therefore, trained nutritionists may be required to effectively manage a child on this diet.
Weighing the Risks and Benefits of Clinical Interventions - Improving Patient Care
Yellowish Papules on a Middle-aged Man - Photo Quiz
Statins for Primary Cardiovascular Prevention - Cochrane for Clinicians
American Academy of Pediatrics Releases Report on Cholesterol Levels in Children and Adolescents - Special Medical Reports
Hypercholesterolemia in Children - Editorials