Items in AFP with MESH term: Chronic Disease
Acute and Chronic Paronychia - Article
ABSTRACT: Paronychia is one of the most common infections of the hand. Clinically, paronychia presents as an acute or a chronic condition. It is a localized, superficial infection or abscess of the paronychial tissues of the hands or, less commonly, the feet. Any disruption of the seal between the proximal nail fold and the nail plate can cause acute infections of the eponychial space by providing a portal of entry for bacteria. Treatment options for acute paronychias include warm-water soaks, oral antibiotic therapy and surgical drainage. In cases of chronic paronychia, it is important that the patient avoid possible irritants. Treatment options include the use of topical antifungal agents and steroids, and surgical intervention. Patients with chronic paronychias that are unresponsive to therapy should be checked for unusual causes, such as malignancy.
Bicycle-Related Injuries - Article
ABSTRACT: Bicycle riding is a popular form of recreation among persons of all ages, and related injuries cause significant morbidity and mortality. Most injuries occur in males and are associated with riding at high speed; most serious injuries and fatalities result from collisions with motor vehicles. Although superficial soft tissue injuries and musculoskeletal trauma are the most common injuries, head injuries are responsible for most fatalities and long-term disabilities. Overuse injuries may contribute to a variety of musculoskeletal complaints, compression neuropathies, perineal and genital complaints. Physicians treating such patients should consider medical factors, as well as suggest adjusting various components of the bicycle, such as the seat height and handlebars. Encouraging bicycle riders to wear helmets is key to preventing injuries; protective clothing and equipment, and general safety advice also may offer some protection.
ABSTRACT: Deciding when to operate on a patient with chronic aortic regurgitation may be extremely difficult. The timing of surgery requires consideration of the etiology and pathophysiology of the aortic regurgitation, because aortic valve replacement carries morbidity and mortality that must be weighed against the potential problems of continued medical management. Guidelines for the use of surgery in patients with valvular disease have been developed by a joint task force of the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association. Practical recommendations based on these guidelines are presented.
ABSTRACT: Determining the level of prealbumin, a hepatic protein, is a sensitive and cost-effective method of assessing the severity of illness resulting from malnutrition in patients who are critically ill or have a chronic disease. Prealbumin levels have been shown to correlate with patient outcomes and are an accurate predictor of patient recovery. In high-risk patients, prealbumin levels determined twice weekly during hospitalization can alert the physician to declining nutritional status, improve patient outcome, and shorten hospitalization in an increasingly cost-conscious economy.
Preconception Health Care - Article
ABSTRACT: Appropriate preconception health care improves pregnancy outcomes. When started at least one month before conception, folic acid supplements can prevent neural tube defects. Targeted genetic screening and counseling should be offered on the basis of age, ethnic background, or family history. Before conception, women should be screened for human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis infection and begin treatment to prevent the transmission of disease to the fetus. Immunizations against hepatitis B, rubella, and varicella should be completed, if needed. Women should be counseled on ways to prevent infection with toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, and parvovirus B19. Environmental toxins such as cigarette smoke, alcohol, and street drugs, and chemicals such as solvents and pesticides should be avoided. In women with diabetes, it is important to optimize disease control through intensive management before pregnancy. Medications for hypertension, epilepsy, thromboembolism, depression, and anxiety should be reviewed and changed, if necessary, before the patient becomes pregnant. Counseling about exercise, obesity, nutritional deficiencies, and the overuse of vitamins A and D is beneficial. Physicians may also choose to discuss occupational and financial issues related to pregnancy and to screen patients for domestic violence.
ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic kidney disease often require surgical interventions for vascular access and for medical problems related to comorbid conditions. Perioperative morbidity and mortality rates are increased in these patients. Preoperative attention to common medical problems that occur in patients with impaired renal function can lower some surgical risks. Hyperkalemia can be temporarily improved by the intravenous administration of an insulin-dextrose combination or bicarbonate, and polystyrene binding resins or dialysis can remove excess stores of potassium. Increased bleeding related to uremic platelet dysfunction can be managed by the administration of desmopressin, cryoprecipitate, or estrogens, and by avoiding the use of medications with antiplatelet effects close to the time of surgery. Transfusions of red blood cells should be reserved for use in patients with clinically significant anemia, because antibody formation may decrease the likelihood of successful renal transplantation in the future. Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in patients with renal disease. Patients with chronic kidney disease may have hypertension and hypoglycemia in the perioperative period. Preoperative testing may be necessary in patients with cardiac risk factors. If future vascular access grafting is contemplated, intravenous line placement and blood draws should be avoided in a patient's nondominant arm.
Chronic Illness and Sexual Functioning - Article
ABSTRACT: Chronic illness and its treatments can have a negative impact on sexual functioning. The mechanism of interference may be neurologic, vascular, endocrinologic, musculoskeletal, or psychologic. Patients may mistakenly perceive a medical prohibition to the resumption of sexual activity, or they may need advice on changes in sexual activity to allow satisfactory sexual functioning. Family physicians must be proactive in diagnosing and managing the alterations in sexual functioning that can occur with chronic illness. Patient education and reassurance are essential. Before sexual activity is resumed, patients with cardiovascular disease should be stratified according to risk. Patients with musculoskeletal disease should be educated about positional changes that may improve comfort during sexual activity. Psychosocial concerns should be addressed in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In patients with cancer, it is important to discuss sexual problems that may arise because of negative body image and the effects of chemotherapy. Patients who have disabilities can benefit from the use of muscle relaxants, technical adaptations, and expansion of their sexual repertoire.
Hepatitis B - Article
ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. More than 400 million persons, including 1.25 million Americans, have chronic hepatitis B. In the United States, chronic hepatitis B virus infection is responsible for about 5,000 annual deaths from cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis B virus is found in body fluids and secretions; in developed countries, the virus is most commonly transmitted sexually or via intravenous drug use. Occupational exposure and perinatal transmission do occur but are rare in the United States. Effective vaccines for hepatitis B virus have been available since 1982; infant and childhood vaccination programs introduced in the 1990s have resulted in a marked decrease in new infections. Risk factors for progression to chronic infection include age at the time of infection and impaired immunity. From 15 to 30 percent of patients with acute hepatitis B infection progress to chronic infection. Medical therapies for chronic hepatitis B include interferon alfa-2b, lamivudine, and the nucleotide analog adefovir dipivoxil.
ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic cough should avoid exposure to irritants that can trigger cough, and those who smoke should stop smoking. Patients who develop chronic cough in association with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy should be switched to an agent from another drug class. If cough persists, a chest radiograph should be ordered to rule out malignancy and other serious conditions. Postnasal drip syndrome, asthma, and gastroesophageal reflux disease are the most likely causes of chronic cough in adults. If postnasal drip syndrome is suspected, a trial of a decongestant and a first-generation antihistamine is warranted. Pulmonary function testing with a methacholine challenge is the preferred test for confirming the diagnosis of asthma. Gastroesophageal reflux disease usually is diagnosed based on the symptoms and after a trial of therapy. If the cause of chronic cough remains unclear, high-resolution computed tomographic scanning of the chest, bronchoscopy, and referral to a pulmonary specialist may be indicated. The approach to diagnosing chronic cough in immunocompromised patients and children is similar to the approach in immunocompetent adults. However, a CD4+ cell count can help determine the potential for opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. Respiratory tract infections, asthma, and gastroesophageal reflux disease are the most common causes of chronic cough in children. Foreign body aspiration should be considered in young children. Congenital conditions, cystic fibrosis, and immune disorders are possible diagnoses in children with chronic cough and recurrent infection.
ABSTRACT: The Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative of the National Kidney Foundation published clinical practice guidelines on chronic kidney disease in February 2002. Of the 15 guidelines, the first six are of greatest relevance to family physicians. Part II of this two-part review covers guidelines 4, 5, and 6. Glomerular filtration rate is the best overall indicator of kidney function. It is superior to the serum creatinine level, which varies with age, sex, and race and often does not reflect kidney function accurately. The glomerular filtration rate can be estimated using prediction equations that take into account the serum creatinine level and some or all of specific variables (age, sex, race, body size). In many patients, estimates of the glomerular filtration rate can replace 24-hour urine collections for creatinine clearance measurements. Urine dipsticks generally are acceptable for detecting proteinuria. To quantify proteinuria, the ratio of protein or albumin to creatinine in an untimed (spot) urine sample is an accurate alternative to measurement of protein excretion in a 24-hour urine collection. Patients with persistent proteinuria have chronic kidney disease. Other techniques for evaluating patients with chronic kidney disease include examination of urinary sediment, urine dipstick testing for red and white blood cells, and imaging studies of the kidneys (especially ultrasonography). These techniques also can help determine the underlying cause of chronic kidney disease. Family physicians should weigh the value of the National Kidney Foundation guidelines for their clinical practice based on the strength of evidence and perceived cost-effectiveness until additional evidence becomes available on the usefulness of the recommended quality indicators.